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Associated Press Reporting Handbook. Changing Media and Media Careers Chapter 24. Converging Media. Convergence has been the buzzword of the past decade. Newspapers, magazines, radio, television and Internet try to incorporate a little of each into their presentations.

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associated press reporting handbook

Associated Press Reporting Handbook

Changing Media and Media Careers

Chapter 24

converging media
Converging Media
  • Convergence has been the buzzword of the past decade.
  • Newspapers, magazines, radio, television and Internet try to incorporate a little of each into their presentations.
  • New Media was only a cliché for a new way to sell the same old media, but convergence is different.
versatile people
Versatile People
  • A reporter will have to write a story for a newspaper or a magazine and then turn around and write a script because the story is going on TV in 10 minutes.
  • Then, do it for the Web.
  • Then, do it for a radio (split) broadcast.
maturity not perfection
Maturity, not Perfection
  • Maturing in each phase of information gathering and presentation impresses employers.
  • You are not omniscient, omnipotent nor omnipresent. Perfection is not the question.
  • You may not be a “great” photographer, but you can take a “decent” photograph.
you are not alone
You are NOT Alone
  • The “lone wolves,” and “solitary investigators” will have to adjust to a more collaborative way of working, joining with others to produce multimedia presentations.
  • This can be terrifying to some people, especially those who have not developed skills or their attitude.
content is king
Content is King
  • Newspapers, news services, radio, television and dot-coms are all looking for content.
  • James M. Donna, AP VP for human resources: “Everybody’s looking for content, and content is words … somebody’s got to write those words.”
the competition
The Competition
  • U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics says job growth for reporters will be higher for online positions.
  • In 1998, out of 67,000 reporting jobs, only 10 percent were in magazines and news services.
  • 60 percent were in newspapers and 30 percent were in radio and television.
the outlook
The Outlook
  • U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics says job growth for reporters will increase from 78,000 in 2000 to 80,000 by 2010.
  • Consider that these are 2,000 new jobs. Statistics do not anticipate attrition, such as death and retirement.
  • Donna says compensation ranges from $15,000 at small-town papers to more than $100,000 for veterans in metropolitan areas.
not bad
Not Bad
  • U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics shows median income currently at $29,110.
  • More applicants have degrees in other fields: History, Political Science, Economics.
  • AP Applicants have included a person with a medical degree and several with law degrees.
  • These people will certainly earn less in journalism than they might as executives in other businesses.
the calling
The Calling
  • People come into this business because of passion.
  • They could be making a lot of money … but they are “working in journalism making fifty to sixty thousand dollars a year working nights and weekends.”
  • “It’s all right … because it’s a great story. They feel compelled to tell the world what’s going on. This is their calling.”
the journalist

The Journalist:

And the Changing Face of the News

journalist s roles
Journalist’s Roles
  • Watchdogs
  • Ombudsmen
  • Critics
  • Provide a Forum
  • Journalists do enjoy privileges not allowed to all citizens -- not legally, but in fact
changes in public affairs reporting
Changes in Public Affairs Reporting
  • Street Reporter
  • Persuader
  • Crusader
  • Investigator
  • Exploiter
  • Entertainer
  • War Correspondent
  • Broadcast Journalist
looking beyond government
Looking Beyond Government
  • Branching out from “traditional public affairs” or “government meetings,” journalists realized from fees paid by the little league ballpark, school employee screening programs and sexual abuse by priests , the public wants to know who is responsible -- accountable?
new beats new viewpoints
New Beats, New Viewpoints
  • Social, economic and technological changes have shifted our news coverage and altered the beat system.
  • Racial and Ethnic issues
  • Energy crises
  • Internet
  • The Environment
limits of traditional news gathering
Limits of Traditional News Gathering
  • Cause/Effect
  • Event-Oriented
  • Newsworthy
    • timeliness
    • effect
    • proximity
    • conflict
    • prominence
    • uniqueness
news from the top
News From the Top
  • Avoid the Spin
  • Officials are Setting the Agenda
    • manipulative
    • self-serving
  • Reach beyond Officialdom
    • Crime reports
    • Watch the Statistics
the myth of objectivity
The Myth of Objectivity
  • We can’t just regurgitate information
  • Let the reader decide
  • Important background
  • Reporter’s knowledge
  • Interpretive journalism
  • Fairness and Balance
  • Diverse Perspectives
models of reporting
Models of Reporting
  • Interpretive Reporting
    • Help public understand meaning and effect of events
  • Humanistic Reporting
    • How issues and events effect the public
  • Explanatory Reporting
    • Why and how events occurred
a reporter s training
A Reporter’s Training
  • Strong liberal arts training
  • Write and communicate well
  • General knowledge of economics, psychology, history, political science, literature and sociology
  • Training can begin in college, but it never stops
getting it right
Getting it Right
  • The overriding compulsion to get things right should guide every reporter’s training.
  • If you don’t have time to get it right the first time, you won’t have time to do it twice.
  • Corrections -- complacency
understanding the system
Understandingthe System
  • Each level of government has unique functions, procedures and terminology.
  • Professions have their jargon
  • Your contacts and your understanding of your beat can save you grief.
  • Who has what kind of information, in what format -- who do I have to see? How do I get that information?
putting theories to work
Putting Theoriesto Work
  • Checks and balances
  • Reporters need to understand the principles and purposes of government and their roots.
  • Combine skills, knowledge, academics, training, ideals, ethics, voracious appetite for information.
  • It is tomorrow’s history. The news you write will define your town, city or community for years to come. It defines you. Is it accurate?
  • It is of local importance, sometimes state, national and international importance.
  • Fortunately, or unfortunately, news is what you say it is!
  • Reporter, Editor, Wire Editor decide at different levels.
  • In the book’s example, Ron Harrist has six reporters to cover an entire state. How does that work?
  • Harrist has air traffic controller syndrome.
  • Controlled by the clock … The publishing cycle.
  • Your audience, to a degree, determines what is news.
  • AP reporting is no longer at the local level. Precinct reporting is out for wire services.
  • Your audience does not necessarily want a verbatim account of what happened in court.
  • Louis D. Boccardi, AP president and CEO: “What the times demand is helping the reader cope with this flow of information which is beyond anybody’s capacity to deal with.”
  • AP receives thousands of stories every day produced by individual papers, according to that paper’s standards. These are not always in good AP style.
  • AP makes mistakes, too: Examples of the 1935 Hauptmann trial verdict … 1884 Election …
  • 2000 election: AP held firm and did not call the election.
  • “… if it isn’t accurate, it isn’t news. It’s fiction.”
  • “… if it isn’t accurate, it isn’t news. It’s fiction.”
  • “… if it isn’t accurate, it isn’t news. It’s fiction.”
  • “… if it isn’t accurate, it isn’t news. It’s fiction.”
  • “… if it isn’t accurate, it isn’t news. It’s fiction.”
  • “… if it isn’t accurate, it isn’t news. It’s fiction.”
  • “… if it isn’t accurate, it isn’t news. It’s fiction.”