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AFRICA TOBACCO SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS TOBACCO FREE SCHOOL ENVIRONEMNT INITIATIVE IN ERITREA. Survey Methodology By Hagos Ahmed, NSO NATIONAL CONFERNCE ON TOBACCO FREE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 9-10 JULY 2009 ASMARA. Contents. Sample design Questionnaire Design

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africa tobacco situational analysis tobacco free school environemnt initiative in eritrea

AFRICA TOBACCO SITUATIONAL ANALYSISTOBACCO FREE SCHOOL ENVIRONEMNT INITIATIVE IN ERITREA

Survey Methodology

By

Hagos Ahmed, NSO

NATIONAL CONFERNCE ON TOBACCO FREE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE

9-10 JULY 2009

ASMARA

Research Team on Tobacco Use and Control In Eritrea

contents
Contents
  • Sample design
  • Questionnaire Design
  • Recruitment and training
  • Fieldwork and data processing
  • Coverage and Response Rate
  • Data Analysis

Research Team on Tobacco Use and Control In Eritrea

sample design
Sample Design

The sample is representative and is intended to get reliable estimate of tobacco use and control indicators for both students and school personnel at:

  • Regional level
  • Middle and Secondary school level
  • WYSS
  • College

Research Team on Tobacco Use and Control In Eritrea

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Students

Research Team on Tobacco Use and Control In Eritrea

a middle and secondary school
A) Middle and Secondary School

Sample Size Determination

  • Based on the level of precision the estimates
  • Domain estimates are assumed to have same level of precision

(Facilitates comparisons among domains)

Assumptions

  • The 2005 proportion of any tobacco users at national level obtained by the GYTS survey (MoH) was used to determine sample size for each of the domains (p=0.082)

Research Team on Tobacco Use and Control In Eritrea

sample size determination cont d
Sample Size Determination Cont’d
  • Margin of error (e) of 3%
  • Non-response rate of 4.5%
  • 95% confidence Interval (z=1.96)

Formula

n=z2pq/e2, where q=1-p

n=330 from each domain (Maekel, Gash-Barka, SawaSeconday, and Colledges)

Research Team on Tobacco Use and Control In Eritrea

number of sample schools
Number of Sample Schools
  • Cluster/school intake of 30 was found to be optimal in providing efficient estimates and field operational convenience
  • 11 schools each from zoba Maekel and Gash-Barka
  • The schools are distributed among the middle and secondary schools in such a way that the estimates at these levels will have similar level of precision (Middle=12, Secondary=10)

Research Team on Tobacco Use and Control In Eritrea

selection methodology 1 3
Selection Methodology (1/3)
  • Two stage stratified cluster sampling
  • First stage: Selection of Clusters/Schools using probability proportional to size (PPS)
  • Second stage: Selection of students using linear systematic random sampling (SRS)

Research Team on Tobacco Use and Control In Eritrea

selection of schools 2 3
Selection of Schools (2/3)
  • Sampling Frame: The 2008 List of middle and secondary schools in Maekel and Gash-Barka regions with their number of students complied by the MoE
  • Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) has been used to select the schools to be surveyed

Research Team on Tobacco Use and Control In Eritrea

selection of students 3 3
Selection of Students (3/3)

In Each Selected School

  • Linear systematic random sampling (SRS) methodology was used to select the sample of students
  • The 2009 list of students was used as a sampling frame

Research Team on Tobacco Use and Control In Eritrea

b warsay yikealo secondary school
B. WarsayYikealo Secondary School
  • Single stage stratified random sampling method (stratification=previous zoba and sex)
  • 330 Students were selected using linear systematic random sampling (SRS).
  • The 2009 list of students by stream, sex, and other characteristics was used as a sampling frame

Research Team on Tobacco Use and Control In Eritrea

c higher level education 1 2
C. Higher level Education (1/2)
  • Single stage stratified sampling method was used (stratification=sex)
  • All colleges were covered
  • 330 students from all colleges were selected for interview
  • The sample was distributed proportionally among the colleges depending on their size

Research Team on Tobacco Use and Control In Eritrea

higher level education 2 2
Higher level Education (2/2)
  • In each college, the share was again allocated proportionally among diploma and degree as well as male and female students
  • In each college, separate list of male and female students arranged by year and department was used as a sampling frame to select the students to be interviewed

Research Team on Tobacco Use and Control In Eritrea

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School Personnel

Research Team on Tobacco Use and Control In Eritrea

selection of school personnel 1 2
Selection of School Personnel (1/2)
  • Sample size=400
  • Based on margin of error of 5%, 95% confidence interval, prevalence of any tobacco use of 0.5 (maximum variability), and non-response rate of 5%.
  • Distributed un-proportionally among the domain of analysis

(Maekel=161, GB=89, WYSS=65, and College=85)

Research Team on Tobacco Use and Control In Eritrea

selection of school personnel 2 2
Selection of School Personnel(2/2)
  • The school share was allocated among males and females proportionally
  • Sample of school personnel were selected using SRS procedure mentioned above
  • In each school, the 2009 separate list of male and female school personnel was used to select the sample of school personnel

Research Team on Tobacco Use and Control In Eritrea

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Conceptual Framework(2/2)

Availability and Price

Environmental Tobacco

Smoke Exposure

School curriculum and Policy

Media and Advertising

Cessation

  • The school share was allocated among males and females proportionally
  • Sample of school personnel were selected using SRS procedure mentioned above
  • In each school, the 2009 separate list of male and female school personnel was used to select the sample of school personnel

Knowledge and Attitudes

Tobacco Use prevalence

Research Team on Tobacco Use and Control In Eritrea

questionnaire design 1 2
Questionnaire Design (1/2)
  • Core GYTS and GSPS
  • GYTS and GSPS conducted in 2004 by MoH
  • Reference to questionnaires of similar studies elsewhere
  • Consultation of wide-range of literature
  • Consultation with stakeholders
  • Reflect the current situation of the country

Research Team on Tobacco Use and Control In Eritrea

questionnaire design 2 2
Questionnaire Design (2/2)

Two types of questionnaires

  • Quantitative

Students

School Personnel

  • Qualitative (Focus Group Discussion)

Students and school personnel

Key informants (MoE, MoH, NUEYS, NUEW, etc.)

Low professionals

Business Community

Research Team on Tobacco Use and Control In Eritrea

coverage and response rate
Coverage and Response Rate

Research Team on Tobacco Use and Control In Eritrea

recruitment and training
Recruitment and Training
  • Staff from CBE, CASS, and EIT were recruited as data collectors on the basis of their experience;
  • One day training and briefing was given to the field staff;
  • Training included: (i) Presentation on questionnaire content and structure (ii) administration of the questionnaires (iii) sampling procedure (iv) data quality measurements

Research Team on Tobacco Use and Control In Eritrea

fieldwork and data processing
Fieldwork and Data Processing
  • Following the training, fieldwork for the study was conducted within two weeks period.
  • Close monitoring and supervision was made during fieldwork to ensure that quality, complete, and consistent data is collected
  • All completed questionnaires were brought to Asmara University for data processing consisting of:
    • Manual editing;
    • Data entry; and
    • Secondary editing.
  • Data entry was done using CSPro software with 10% verification for data entry error

Research Team on Tobacco Use and Control In Eritrea

data analysis
Data Analysis
  • Tabulation plan prepared
  • SPSS used for analysis (simple frequencies, descriptive statistics, tables)
  • Weight variable has been inserted into data set
  • All analysis were based on weighted cases

Research Team on Tobacco Use and Control In Eritrea

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THANK YOU

Research Team on Tobacco Use and Control In Eritrea

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