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A Geographical Characterization of YouTube: a Latin American View. Fernando Duarte, Fabrício Benevenuto , Virgílio Almeida, Jussara Almeida Federal University of Minas Gerais – Brazil. Outline. Motivation and Goals YouTube Features Crawler and Sampling Geographical Characterization

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a geographical characterization of youtube a latin american view

A Geographical Characterization of YouTube: a Latin American View

Fernando Duarte, Fabrício Benevenuto,

Virgílio Almeida, Jussara Almeida

Federal University of Minas Gerais – Brazil

outline
Outline
  • Motivation and Goals
  • YouTube Features
  • Crawler and Sampling
  • Geographical Characterization
  • Conclusions and Future Work
motivation and goals
Motivation and Goals
  • YouTube is a popular online social video sharing service which generates high-volumes of Internet traffic
  • YouTube Popularity in Latin American (from www.alexa.com)
    • 6th in Argentina and Paraguay,
    • 5th in Brazil, Mexico, Chile and Peru,
    • 4th in Ecuador and Venezuela.
  • Goal: characterize influence of geographical localization of users on traffic and social relationship.
    • Focus on Latin American
youtube features
YouTube Features

Users – videos

  • watch videos
  • upload videos (unlimited)
  • add videos as favorite
  • post a comment to a video
  • respond a video with another video
  • rating a video

Users – users interactions

  • add users as friends
  • subscribe to another user

Videos

  • Have a list of 20 related videos
  • are distributed in 14 categories
sampling mechanism
Sampling Mechanism
  • Sampling Strategy:
    • collect information of popular videos and analyze the user interactions around these videos.
  • First crawler: Collect metadata information of Videos
    • Start from top all time viewed video and collect the related videos recursively in snowball fashion
      • Snowball uses a Breadth first scheme
  • Second Crawler: Collect metadata information of Users from the first crawler
    • User who uploaded videos, posted comments or video responses.
slide6

Crawler Architecture

  • Parallel crawler
    • Server coordinates the snowball sampling and
    • Server avoids redundant data collection
    • 7 Linux boxes

Client 2

Client 7

Client 1

Server

  • Collected information of over 2 million videos, exhausting 6 tiers in 11 days (from Apr 3rd to 14th)
  • 96 of the 100 most all-time popular videos are part of the sample
statistics of videos and users collected
Statistics of videos and users collected
  • USA is responsible for 28% of videos and 38% of users
  • 7% of users are LA, responsible for 7% of uploads and 6% of views
  • 13% of users without country information (empty)
  • # views > # comments > # video responses
latin american users
Latin American Users
  • Table is sorted by number of users
  • Users from Brazil, Mexico, and Argentina have contributed with more videos, but in terms of uploads/user Peru leads the rank
  • In terms of traffic (wached videos) Brazil, Mexico, and Virgin Islands lead the rank
  • LA users have an average 22 favorite videos and average of 2 friends
    • Orkut and Myspace have an average of 30 and 137 friends respectively
  • We guess that most part of the users interact with friends in other online social network and use YouTube essentially to watch videos
video popularity
Video Popularity
  • Curve of number of views does not descend linearly
  • 10% of the top popular LA videos concentrate 76% of the views: caching
  • LA videos are less visualized and discussed, generating less traffic than other videos
video duration
Video Duration
  • About 80% of the videos are smaller than 5 minutes
  • There is no difference for different regions
use of social features
Use of Social Features
  • LA users interact less at YouTube than other users.
use of social features12
Use of Social Features
  • Besides less interactive, there are LA users with 2400 friends, users who uploaded 1400 videos and sent more than 1200 comments.
user interactions
User Interactions

Latin American videos

  • Observe the percentage of comments for videos from LA, USA and others.
  • Plot the distribution of this percentage
textual interactions
Textual Interactions

Latin American videos

USA videos

  • The probability of LA videos have more than 60% of comments from LA users is 0.32 (from USA is only 0.08)
  • Videos have higher probability to receive comments from same region
  • Potential use of CDNs (assuming that number of views is also influenced by geographical factors)
  • Few LA users interact with videos from USA/others, but USA/others interact with LA users
conclusions and future work
Conclusions and Future Work
  • We present a geographical characterization of YouTube, highlighting a number of differences between Latin American users and other countries
  • Main Findings
    • Videos uploaded by LA users present different characteristics than videos uploads by users from other regions: less visualized and discussed.
    • Top popular videos concentrate most part of the views, suggesting the use of caching
    • Interactions present strong influence of geographical localization, suggesting the use of CDNs to improve performance
  • Future Work
    • Analyzing impact of language on traffic and user behavior
    • Explore social networks characteristics of interactions between users and videos across different regions