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A Geographical Characterization of YouTube: a Latin American View. Fernando Duarte, Fabrício Benevenuto , Virgílio Almeida, Jussara Almeida Federal University of Minas Gerais – Brazil. Outline. Motivation and Goals YouTube Features Crawler and Sampling Geographical Characterization

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A geographical characterization of youtube a latin american view l.jpg

A Geographical Characterization of YouTube: a Latin American View

Fernando Duarte, Fabrício Benevenuto,

Virgílio Almeida, Jussara Almeida

Federal University of Minas Gerais – Brazil


Outline l.jpg
Outline View

  • Motivation and Goals

  • YouTube Features

  • Crawler and Sampling

  • Geographical Characterization

  • Conclusions and Future Work


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Motivation and Goals View

  • YouTube is a popular online social video sharing service which generates high-volumes of Internet traffic

  • YouTube Popularity in Latin American (from www.alexa.com)

    • 6th in Argentina and Paraguay,

    • 5th in Brazil, Mexico, Chile and Peru,

    • 4th in Ecuador and Venezuela.

  • Goal: characterize influence of geographical localization of users on traffic and social relationship.

    • Focus on Latin American


Youtube features l.jpg
YouTube Features View

Users – videos

  • watch videos

  • upload videos (unlimited)

  • add videos as favorite

  • post a comment to a video

  • respond a video with another video

  • rating a video

Users – users interactions

  • add users as friends

  • subscribe to another user

Videos

  • Have a list of 20 related videos

  • are distributed in 14 categories


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Sampling Mechanism View

  • Sampling Strategy:

    • collect information of popular videos and analyze the user interactions around these videos.

  • First crawler: Collect metadata information of Videos

    • Start from top all time viewed video and collect the related videos recursively in snowball fashion

      • Snowball uses a Breadth first scheme

  • Second Crawler: Collect metadata information of Users from the first crawler

    • User who uploaded videos, posted comments or video responses.


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Crawler Architecture View

  • Parallel crawler

    • Server coordinates the snowball sampling and

    • Server avoids redundant data collection

    • 7 Linux boxes

Client 2

Client 7

Client 1

Server

  • Collected information of over 2 million videos, exhausting 6 tiers in 11 days (from Apr 3rd to 14th)

  • 96 of the 100 most all-time popular videos are part of the sample


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Statistics of videos and users collected View

  • USA is responsible for 28% of videos and 38% of users

  • 7% of users are LA, responsible for 7% of uploads and 6% of views

  • 13% of users without country information (empty)

  • # views > # comments > # video responses


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Latin American Users View

  • Table is sorted by number of users

  • Users from Brazil, Mexico, and Argentina have contributed with more videos, but in terms of uploads/user Peru leads the rank

  • In terms of traffic (wached videos) Brazil, Mexico, and Virgin Islands lead the rank

  • LA users have an average 22 favorite videos and average of 2 friends

    • Orkut and Myspace have an average of 30 and 137 friends respectively

  • We guess that most part of the users interact with friends in other online social network and use YouTube essentially to watch videos


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Video Popularity View

  • Curve of number of views does not descend linearly

  • 10% of the top popular LA videos concentrate 76% of the views: caching

  • LA videos are less visualized and discussed, generating less traffic than other videos


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Video Duration View

  • About 80% of the videos are smaller than 5 minutes

  • There is no difference for different regions


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Use of Social Features View

  • LA users interact less at YouTube than other users.


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Use of Social Features View

  • Besides less interactive, there are LA users with 2400 friends, users who uploaded 1400 videos and sent more than 1200 comments.


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User Interactions View

Latin American videos

  • Observe the percentage of comments for videos from LA, USA and others.

  • Plot the distribution of this percentage


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Textual Interactions View

Latin American videos

USA videos

  • The probability of LA videos have more than 60% of comments from LA users is 0.32 (from USA is only 0.08)

  • Videos have higher probability to receive comments from same region

  • Potential use of CDNs (assuming that number of views is also influenced by geographical factors)

  • Few LA users interact with videos from USA/others, but USA/others interact with LA users


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Conclusions and Future Work View

  • We present a geographical characterization of YouTube, highlighting a number of differences between Latin American users and other countries

  • Main Findings

    • Videos uploaded by LA users present different characteristics than videos uploads by users from other regions: less visualized and discussed.

    • Top popular videos concentrate most part of the views, suggesting the use of caching

    • Interactions present strong influence of geographical localization, suggesting the use of CDNs to improve performance

  • Future Work

    • Analyzing impact of language on traffic and user behavior

    • Explore social networks characteristics of interactions between users and videos across different regions


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Questions? Viewfabricio@dcc.ufmg.br