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1905 Industrial depression had begun in 1900 Extreme hardship Ignited series of strikes War with Japan (1904) Over control of territory in Far East Russia defeated in every battle, land and sea Had disastrous impact on morale Increased discontent of peasants and workers

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1905
  • Industrial depression had begun in 1900
    • Extreme hardship
    • Ignited series of strikes
  • War with Japan (1904)
    • Over control of territory in Far East
    • Russia defeated in every battle, land and sea
      • Had disastrous impact on morale
      • Increased discontent of peasants and workers
  • Demands mounted for establishment of legislative assembly and civil rights
bloody sunday
BLOODY SUNDAY
  • January 22, 1905
  • Workers demonstrate peacefully in front of Winter Palace for moderate reforms
    • Organized by Father Gapon
    • Guards fire on demonstrators, killing or wounding hundreds
    • Shatters the ideal that a sacred bond existed between the people and paternalistic tsar who would look after their welfare
    • Formerly loyal workers join socialists and other revolutionary groups
    • Kadets and liberals stunned by event and began to cooperate with revolutionaries
the revolution escalates
THE REVOLUTION ESCALATES
  • Anti-tsarist revolution becomes broad social movement
    • Includes workers, peasants, national minorities, bourgeois intellectuals, and even members of armed forces
      • Sailors on battleship Potemkin mutiny in June 1905 and kill officers
      • Other ships in Black Sea fleet refuse to fire on Potemkin and it eventually finds refuge in Rumania
october manifesto
OCTOBER MANIFESTO
  • Nicholas announced creation of elective Duma (representative assembly) in August 1905
  • Revolution continues with general strike erupting from October 20-30
    • Nicholas responds with further concessions—the October Manifesto
      • Duma given legislative power
      • Guarantees civil rights for all—including freedom of press, speech, and assembly
    • Wins over liberals, but not radicals
      • Opposition now split and revolution loses momentum
      • Still loyal troops used to put down remaining demonstrations
depressing aftermath
DEPRESSING AFTERMATH
  • Once danger was past, Nicholas avoided relinquishing any power
  • Limited power of Duma
    • Issued list of “fundamental laws” that the Duman could not change
    • Announced that tsar could dissolve Duma at any time and call for new elections
    • Announced tsar had sole authority over foreign and military policy, the succession to the throne, ministerial appointments, pardons, and court affairs
    • Finance minister would be solely responsible for currency issues and foreign loans
    • Tsar’s Council of State transformed into upper house with equal power to the Duma
  • Restrictions and qualifications placed on freedoms of speech and press
  • Duma dissolved twice between 1905 and 1907 until tsar got docile body he wanted
peter stolypin
PETER STOLYPIN
  • Minister of Interior, 1907-1911
  • Encouraged peasants to consolidate their scattered strips of land into unified plots on the American model
    • Goal was to encourage improved farming methods and greater productivity and create prosperous (and conservative) peasantry
  • Plan implemented slowly due to bureaucratic foot-dragging
    • By 1915 only ten percent of peasant property had been consolidated
    • Stolypin assassinated in 1911, thereby ending momentum of his program
  • Reforms did have some positive impact
rasputin
RASPUTIN
  • Quality of imperial leadership dramatically declined between 1905-1914 due to the rise of Rasputin
    • Wandering monk from Siberia who claimed to be a “holy man”
    • Filthy, barely literate, cruel, and utterly depraved
    • Tsarina Alexandra worshipped him as reincarnated Jesus because of his ability to stop bleeding of hemophiliac son, Alexis
rasputin s influence
RASPUTIN’S INFLUENCE
  • Rasputin gained powerful hold over the tsar and entire government
    • Asked his opinion on policy
    • Recommended people for important government jobs
    • Influenced promotions’
    • Had people fired
  • Recommendations never based on qualifications
    • Always the result of bribes, sexual favors, and flattery
    • Extraordinarily incompetent individuals gained important jobs as a result of his influence
  • No one dare complain about his behavior because they would be fired on the spot
world war i
WORLD WAR I
  • Erupted on August 1, 1914
  • Russia fought on Allied side
    • With France and Great Britain
    • Against Central Powers
      • Germany, Austrian Empire, and Ottoman Empire
  • No country understood unprecedented destruction that war would cause
    • But Russia was the most ill-prepared of all
1914 disaster
1914: DISASTER
  • Russian invades eastern Germany at start of war
    • Germany forced to pull several divisions out of France to met Russian threat
    • Germany defeats Russians at Battle of Tanneburg
  • Russia invades Austrian Poland
    • Germany helps defeated Austrians push Russians out and back into Russia
      • Eastern Front then stabilizes
  • 1914 very costly for Russia
    • 4 million casualties and replacements were poorly trained
    • Russia also began to run out of weapons and ammunition
home front
HOME FRONT
  • Initial outbreak of war had united Russians
    • Except Bolsheviks
  • Then cost of war became clear
    • Huge casualties
    • Food shortages in urban centers
    • Stories of officer brutality
    • Rumors of men being sent on suicide charges without weapons
    • Stories of officers selling scarce supplies on black market
    • Stories of government corruption and incompetence
    • Ominous rumors of soldiers killing their officers and deserting

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from bad to worse
FROM BAD TO WORSE
  • Nicholas takes personal command of Russian army in 1916
  • Leaves civilian government in hands of wife Alexandra and Rasputin
  • Rasputin murdered in December 1916 by nephew of tsar
    • Too late
    • Most Russians now believe that tsar was hopelessly incompetent
    • Rumors of palace coup to put someone else on the throne
february 1917 revolution
FEBRUARY 1917 REVOLUTION
  • Caused by severe food shortages in major cities
  • Riots break out on February 23-26 in Petrograd over food and coal shortages
  • Workers strike to protest rising prices
  • Students demand tsar’s abdication
  • Nicholas sends in troops to crush demonstrations
    • Soldiers mutiny and join in
  • President of Duma notifies Nicholas that only the creation of a responsible government will resolve crisis
    • Nicholas orders Duma to disband
    • Duma stays in session
creation of petrograd soviet
CREATION OF PETROGRAD SOVIET
  • Workers spontaneously set up Petrograd Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies
    • Made up of representatives from mutinous army regiments and striking workers
    • Appeals on February 28 to people to remain calm and demands election of a constitutional convention to create a democratic government
  • Soviet has great deal of power because it had wholehearted support of workers and soldiers in capital
    • Saw its role at this time as safeguarding interests of common people and looked to Duma to form new national government
the end of romanov dynasty
THE END OF ROMANOV DYNASTY
  • Nicholas orders more troops into Petrograd
    • They mutiny too
  • Nicholas tried to return in person to Petrograd
    • Railroad workers, under orders of Petrograd Soviet, refuse to move his train
  • Nicholas finally abdicates in favor of his younger brother Michael
    • Michael turns offer down
    • Romanov Dynasty finished