set up bureaucracies l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Set Up: Bureaucracies PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Set Up: Bureaucracies

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 9

Set Up: Bureaucracies - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 338 Views
  • Uploaded on

Set Up: Bureaucracies. PS 202 -- American Political Institutions and Processes. Fall 2001. Inside the Box of Bureaucracy: Four Perspectives on Organization. Efficiency Maximizing Organizations with Conforming Individuals Max Weber (Sociology - legitimacy from legal authority)

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Set Up: Bureaucracies' - MartaAdara


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
set up bureaucracies
Set Up: Bureaucracies

PS 202 -- American Political Institutions and Processes

Fall 2001

inside the box of bureaucracy four perspectives on organization
Inside the Box of Bureaucracy:Four Perspectives on Organization
  • Efficiency Maximizing Organizations with Conforming Individuals
    • Max Weber (Sociology - legitimacy from legal authority)
    • Ronald Coase (transaction cost and contractual economics)
  • Inefficient Organizations with Utility Maximizing Individuals
    • Anthony Downs (typology of bureaucrats’ motivations)
    • William Niskanen, Gordon Tullock (social choice formal models)
  • Organizations as Social Enterprises with Satisficing Individuals
    • Herbert Simon (decision making and bounded rationality)
    • Richard Cyert and James March (behavioral theory of the firm)
  • Potential Integration: New Economics of Organization
    • Principal-Agent Theory (Information asymmetry, adverse selection, moral hazard)
conventional view of the executive branch in government
Conventional View of the Executive Branch in Government

Chief Executive

Cabinet (Department Heads)

The Bureaucracy

context federal bureaucracy in the web of politics
Context: Federal Bureaucracy in the “Web of Politics”

Executive Authority

Statutory Authority,

Appropriations

Congress

President

Tools:

 Nominations

 President’s

Budget

 Regulatory

Review

 Privatization

 Devolution

Tools:

 Creation

Confirmations

 Appropriations

 Oversight

Executive Branch Agencies

Political (Appointment)

Executive Levels

I-Secretary

II-Deputy Secretary

III-Under Secretary

IV-Assistant Secretary

V-General Counsel, etc.

Senior Executive Service(SES)

(up to 10% of SES)

Schedule C (GS-15 & below)

(policy determining)

Career (Competitive Service)

Senior Executive Service (SES)

(At least 90% of SES)

GS Supergrade 16-18

GS 1-15

Public/Constituents

Interest Groups

four images of bureaucrat and politician roles
Four Images of Bureaucrat and Politician Roles
  • Image I: Policy/Administration
    • Politicians Make Policy (Decision Making)
    • Civil Servants Administer Policy (Implementation)
  • Image II: Facts/Interests

Both Participate in Policy Making, But:

    • Politicians Bring Interests and Values (Political Sensitivity)
    • Civil Servants Bring Facts and Knowledge (Neutral Expertise)
  • Image III: Energy/Equilibrium

Both Participate in Policy Making, and Both Concerned with Politics, But:

    • Politicians Articulate Broad Interests of Unorganized Individuals
    • Civil Servants Mediate Narrow, Focused Interests of Organized Clienteles
  • Image IV: The Pure Hybrid
    • “Bureaucratization” of Politics
    • “Politicization” of Bureaucracy

Joel Aberbach, Robert Putnam, and Bert Rockman, Bureaucrats and Politicans in Western Democracies, 1981.

nine possible roles of bureaucrats and politicians
Nine Possible Roles of Bureaucrats and Politicians

Under Image I, Who Performs Which Roles?

Bureaucrats

Politicians

X

  • Technician -- Solving technical problems and applying specialized knowledge
  • Advocate -- Fighting for or representing the interests of a class, group, or cause
  • Legalist -- Focusing on legal processes or legalistic definitions of one’s responsibilities
  • Broker -- Mediating or resolving political conflicts and conflicts among interests
  • Trustee -- Representing the state, the general interest
  • Facilitator -- Protecting the interests of specific clientele groups or constituents
  • Partisan -- Focusing on partisan politics
  • Policy Maker -- Focusing on formulating public policy
  • Ombudsman -- Undertaking casework for individual clients or constituents

X

X

X

X

X

X

?

formulating

X

X

Joel Aberbach, Robert Putnam, and Bert Rockman, Bureaucrats and Politicans in Western Democracies, 1981.

role focus of bureaucrats and politicians in seven western democracies
Role Focus of Bureaucrats and Politicians in Seven Western Democracies

Joel Aberbach, Robert Putnam, and Bert Rockman, Bureaucrats and Politicans in Western Democracies, 1981, Figure 4-1.

rank order similarities in bureaucratic and political role focus
Rank-Order Similarities in Bureaucratic and Political Role Focus

Country

Spearman’s rho Coefficient

.82

United States

.35

Sweden

Germany

.32

Britain

.31

.13

Netherlands

École Nationale D’Administration

École Polytecnique

.04

France

Italy

.03

Joel Aberbach, Robert Putnam, and Bert Rockman, Bureaucrats and Politicans in Western Democracies, 1981, Figure 4-2.

bureaucracy as a political structure
Bureaucracy as a Political Structure

“American public bureaucracy is not designed to be effective. The bureaucracy arises out of politics, and its design reflects the interests, strategies, and compromises of those who exercise political power….[C]hoices about bureaucratic structure are not matters that can be separated off from [political interests], to be guided by technical criteria of efficiency and effectiveness. Structural choices have important consequences for the content and direction of policy, and political actors know it. When they make choices about structure, they are implicitly making choices about policy. And precisely because this is so, issues of structure get caught up in the larger political struggle.”

Terry Moe, “The Politics of Bureaucratic Structure,” pp. 267-268.