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Families in Transition: Ethnic Case Studies. Dr. Jane Granskog. California State University, Bakersfield. Self, Family and Community: Positive Dependency . sociological interdependence - self defined in relationship to family, community, ancestors, spirits

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families in transition ethnic case studies

Families in Transition: Ethnic Case Studies

Dr. Jane Granskog

California State University, Bakersfield

self family and community positive dependency
Self, Family and Community: Positive Dependency
  • sociological interdependence - self defined in relationship to family, community, ancestors, spirits
  • cyclical continuous flow between each essential for health and harmony
  • Self oriented toward personal interaction
positive dependency flows
Positive Dependency Flows
  • Follow own wishes but within a context limiting boundaries of Self
  • Control limiting boundaries of Self instilled by space & sound - respect & obedience toward elders
dependency within the family
Dependency within the Family
  • Families are viewed as interlocking life units in which the well-being of one is inherent in well-being of others
  • Roles modify as persons move from one stage to another but not outside group
  • Bonding with trust is based on demands of custom v.s. a measure of the individual performance of given individual
dependency within the family5
Dependency within the Family
  • Lateral extended kin - horizontal basis that carries brunt of dependency flow
  • Tension diluted by stretching discipline lines
  • Importance of respect mechanism
  • Emphasis on mutuality, reciprocity - setting things right in family disputes through face-to-face encounters (Hawaiian, 'ohana' practice)
dependency within the community
Dependency within the Community
  • emphasis on sharing, support between all groups/subunits within community - reciprocity
  • emphasis on exchange of services (time & energy)
  • importance of “doing” for others - involvement, commitment
types of independence
Types of Independence
  • Opposing dependency - supremacy of self outside of flow, emphasis on self first and foremost (sociological independence - Independence Complex)
  • Positive dependency - freedom to make choices within a cooperative framework (caring about others)
factors influencing the nature of dependency flow
Factors Influencing the Nature of Dependency Flow
  • Length of time (history) that you've had with someone - continuity, commonality
  • Nature of the "kinship" bond (biological vs non-biological and significance of the difference)
  • Nature of the interaction and intensity of the bond (e.g., life & death situation - wartime buddies)
factors influencing the nature of dependency flow9
Factors Influencing the Nature of Dependency Flow
  • Location - distance limits the type & frequency of interaction (being able to call upon them), limits involvement
  • Common interests - ties are with people with whom you share important parts of your life - work, school, leisure activities, etc.
factors influencing the nature of dependency flow10
Factors Influencing the Nature of Dependency Flow
  • Personal background/history - personality traits, coming from a disengaged vs enmeshed family; significance of "poisonous pedagogy" - disfunctional traits carried from childhood
  • Gender and Ethnic Background - differences in socialization patterns of females v.s. males and how they are expressed within the socio-cultural context
positive dependency features
Positive Dependency Features
  • Commitment (“amae”) - presume on each other’s convenience, call on in time of need
  • Involvement - engaged in daily activities
  • Bonding - established history, being a part of one’s life
  • Obligation - there to help each other out
positive dependency features12
Positive Dependency Features
  • Reciprocity - doing for one another
  • Trust - being able to count on one another, a known quantity
  • Continuity - sense of community/”family” that extends over time
kinship exercise
Kinship Exercise
  • Frequency of interaction -- how often do you communicate with them, what is the nature of the communication?
  • What areas of life do you share with different members?
    • economic - support each other
    • social - get together at family reunions, spend week-end in shared activities, etc.
    • religious - go to church together, etc.
kinship exercise14
Kinship Exercise
  • Role obligations and/or responsibilities -- what have you done for them recently & what have they done for you?, when you get into trouble, who are you most likely to call upon?
  • Note any patterns in the nature of your interaction with kin -- do you interact with some more than others and if so why? Is it because they live close by, share common interests and values, and/or because they are relatives?
changing family dynamics
Changing Family Dynamics
  • 1950’s“ traditional family” (focus on structure as economic unit of production & consumption - breadwinner/homemaker) no longer dominant by 1990’s - greater acceptance of plurality of forms
  • Significance of “second shift” - changing role of males & females within home, impact of “downsizing”, conflicting demands work/home (40% of labor force, nonstandard work schedules), increased economic stress on middle class families
ethnic families in america
Ethnic Families in America
  • Significance of “primordial attachments’- belonging to a given ethnic group with a unique cultural heritage
  • Changing perspective of “Americanization”, assimilation -renewed ethnic consciousness
  • Focus of identity and solidarity lies in family’s ability to socialize members into ethnic culture
features of ethnic families
Features of Ethnic Families
  • Emphasis on family activities - eating "ethnic" foods
  • Structure of the family - traditionally typically large extended families, patriarchal ideal, father-headed, mother-centered; strong family orientation; trend to smaller more nuclear families, increasing impact of socialization by outside institutions
features of ethnic families 2
Features of Ethnic Families -2
  • Ideology - emphasis on trust within group/family loyalty to kin first; emphasis on honor of the family
  • Cohesion/integration - traditional unity as the primary social & economic unit, emphasis on supportive family rituals; presently less likely to operate as such
  • Limited Geographic mobility -- place oriented to a considerable degree
focus of articles in ethnic families
Focus of Articles in Ethnic Families
  • Historical background of immigration patterns
  • Demographic characteristics (rates of marriage, divorce, intermarriage)
  • Structure of the family (distribution of status, authority, responsibility within nuclear family) & extended kin networks
focus of articles in ethnic families20
Focus of Articles in Ethnic Families
  • Cultural values - achievement, style of life, educational & occupational aspirations; reflected in socialization patterns
  • Characteristics at different stages of the family life cycle - form of acculturation/assimilation taking place
overview of immigrant family in u s
Overview of Immigrant Family in U.S.
  • 18th cen. Mercantilism, great transformation to large scale capitalist enterprises w/ rise of proletariats in 19th cen. (push factors); opportunities in U.S. (pull factors)
  • Immigration waves: 1) 1832-82 (old); 2) 1882-1930 (new - Irish, Germans); 3)”great lull” 1925-’65; 4) 1965 on - Asians, Indians, Pacific Islders., circular & transmodern migration patterns
black american family
Black American Family
  • Importance of a holistic approach to studying African American families in context
  • Four cultural traits distinguishing Black Americans from other immigrants:
    • Are from countries with very different norms & values
    • Are from many different tribes & cultures
    • First came without women
    • Came in bondage
black american family23
Black American Family
  • Major problems with most studies of black family life in past, focus on low income groups, presumed to fit various stereotypes by social scientists (few studies until 1970’s) - two major perspectives:
  • Pathological, disorganization perspective
  • Strength-resiliency perspective
black american family perspectives
Black American Family Perspectives
  • Pathological view goes back to slavery period - supported by both pro- & anti-slavery groups (either not capable of stable family life or such was not possible under conditions of slavery), views family as deviant/maladaptive
  • ignores variability in family types & existence of free black families
black american family perspectives25
Black American Family Perspectives
  • Frazier - 1930’s - concerned with assimilation of blacks in America - viewed “moral disorganization” of black families as impediment to assimilation, failure to keep sexual urges under control;
  • 1965 Moynihan, re-affirmed, view of matrifocal families as disfunctional, associated w/ culture of poverty.
black american family perspectives26
Black American Family Perspectives
  • Strength resiliency perspective emerges in 1968 w/ Billingsley; focus on adaptive mechanisms of family to meet conflicting demands placed on it; strong role of women
  • Major strengths - strong kinship bonds, strong work orientation, adaptability of family roles, high achievement & religious orientation
black american family27
Black American Family
  • Stack - focus on strategies used in black networks to survive in poor urban environments; domestic networks; focuses on reciprocal exchange & mutual aid among kin & non-kin (not always as effective as stated)
  • Staples: majority of Black families have nuclear model (1972 - 2/3 w/ husband & wife);
  • significant variables: education, work, income
modern black american family
Modern Black American Family
  • 1960-’70-’80 decline in fertility rate (birth rate of college-educated black women lower than white counterparts); increase in out of wedlock births, co-habiting couples;
  • Distinction of family vs non family households - diversity in composition (nuclear, extended & augmented family households
  • 130% increase in female headed households (discrimination, urban living, poverty); 45% unemployment rate of black men
modern black american family29
Modern Black American Family
  • Black kinship network more extensive & cohesive than among Anglos, take in relatives more readily, rely on kin more
  • Role relations - egalitarian, husbands involved in decision making; high value of children
  • Economic problems major factor in marital conflict, imbalanced sex ratio, increase in interracial dating & marriage
native americans
Native Americans
  • Significant variation among diverse cultures ranging from hunter gatherers to agricultural states; described primarily by anthropologists in terms of 10-12 cultural areas
  • Major impact of contact - disease (1/2+ of Indian languages extinct), policy of extermination (vs incorporation characterized by Spanish territories)
native americans vs europeans contrasts
Native Americans vs EuropeansContrasts
  • Indian marriages public, customary, contract between kin groups VS European marriages - private legal contract between individuals
  • Indians tolerant of & expressed diversity of marriage forms (polygamy, monogamy etc) & descent systems VS Europeans - monogamy, nuclear family, bilateral inheritance only
native americans vs europeans contrasts32
Native Americans vs Europeans - Contrasts
  • Indians - significant variation in level of social organization & kin terminology systems VS Europeans - not significant
  • Attitudes re: kinship: European failure to understand different kin structures especially of matrilineal groups lead to breakdown of kin systems
acculturation of native americans
Acculturation of Native Americans
  • forced acculturation to Anglo-European practices via missionary efforts (e.g., “proper” marriage); education (B.I.A., boarding schools);
  • racist federal policies - force individual land holding (loss of land), economic conditions on reservations, inducements to relocate to urban areas; intermarriages - Indian women marrying non-status whites, lost traditional rights
modern native american families
Modern Native American Families
  • are approximately 300 federally recognized tribes + another 100 non-recognized tribes (east, California)
  • despite forced acculturation + influence of American popular culture on N. American youth, & 500 years of ethnocide, significant differences in family practices & values remain
modern native american families35
Modern Native American Families
  • key values - cooperation, balance , harmony, kinship, respect -interrelation of all life, P.D.N.
  • up to early ‘60’s, dominant view based on early anthro studies - extended family seen as norm; families classified by degree of acculturation
  • do not have definitive, current research to document changes in Native American family life
modern native american families36
Modern Native American Families
  • problems with classification of “extended family networks”, what constitutes extended - Red Horse’s typology; Native American families are more firmly based on interdependence (e.g., child rearing, ego identity)
  • types based on degree of assimilation - reflected in degree of intermarriage (white father, grandfather, husband, +school teachers, clergy)
modern native american families37
Modern Native American Families
  • Miller’s typology based on degree to which have Indian/White values & behaviors - traditional (Indian values); transitional (adapts to white means & ends); bicultural (Indian values + adapt to whites); marginal (anomic in both worlds)
  • bicultural considered to be most well-adjusted
  • greater availability & proximity of kin, effect on support networks
modern native american families38
Modern Native American Families
  • ways in which researchers define & measure family extension critical
  • measures - household composition, residential propinquity
  • best measure - effective or functioning support network based on interaction & proximity of residence
native american socio demographics
Native American Socio-demographics
  • fastest growing, youngest population (1.4 million + 6.7 million partial descent); median age lower than general population
  • more women of childbearing age, more are also adolescents
  • 23% all Native Am. families, female headed; over 1/4th live in povery; high rates of unemployment
native american sociodemographics
Native American Sociodemographics
  • intermariage increased 20% ‘70 to ‘80; 50%, married to another race
  • socialization - less acculturated, higher self esteem, acculturation--destructive effect
  • gender differences: women, concern w/ kinfolk, family, marriage, sex; men, employment, money, success, material matters; men’s roles more changed than women
gay and lesbian families
Gay and Lesbian Families
  • Major shift from 1960s-’70s to late 1980s - significant upsurge in # of children w/ 1 or 2 gay/lesbian parent; 1989 Denmark legalized gay marriage, 2001 Netherlands gave full legal rights to same-sex marriages; on-going controversy in U.S.
  • Impact of sexual revolution, alternative reproductive technologies, continued discrimination & backlash re: “The Family” (DOMA-1996); redefining family in social vs. biological terms;
  • Legitimizing same-sex marriages significant impact recognizing plurality of diverse vibrant family forms (2001 Gallup poll--opposition dropped to 52%)
diversity among latino families
Diversity Among Latino Families
  • Historical view - biased perspectives, focus on one family form vs. diverse forms present, tendency to see as “traditional”, disorganized and dysfunctiona;
  • Impact of economic restructuring & immigration on global basis; 4 factors - new technologies (computer chip), global interdependence, flight of capital, & dominance of info. & service sectors; new demands for immigrant labor
mexican american family
Mexican-American Family
  • Significance of impact of history of colonization by Spain & conflict with U.S. on demographics of Mexican Americans
  • Key events: Mexican-American War (1846-’48); 1880-1930 & Bracero Program (1942-’64) -- significant increase due to need for labor
mexican american family44
Mexican-American Family
  • pop. of Mexican origin tripled from 4.5million in ‘70 to 13.5 million in 1990; presently 60%+ of total Hispanic population (2/3 native born);
  • majority (86%) in Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, & Texas
  • Highly heterogeneous population with variable family structures depending on region, education, time of migration, social class, etc.; marked by low family income, high labor force participation -- largest average household size of all Latino groups
mexican american family45
Mexican-American Family
  • traits of Mexican Americans thought to affect/reflect family patterns - person oriented vs goal oriented (emphasis on interpersonal relations); less materialistic & competitive than Anglos, material goods, a means to an end
  • stereotypes of traditional family involve positive/negative interpretations of structural features
traditional mexican american family features
Traditional Mexican-American Family Features
  • Familism (la familia) - key role of family to all members, major support in attaining all goals; warm, nurturing, stable structure
  • Male dominance - machismo - stereotypes--aggression, sexual prowess; real machismo - emphasis on honor of family, courage, generosity, respect for others including role of wife & children; marianismo (matrifocality)
traditional mexican american family
Traditional Mexican-American Family
  • Sex & age grading - females submissive to males, young to elders - stereotypes overlook functions of each within extended peasant family; respect for elders, role of eldest son, authority over sisters & younger children
  • Features of traditional family were a response to needs for survival; importance of familism remains strong despite other changes
modern mexican american family
Modern Mexican-American Family
  • Primarily located in cities (85%) in SW
  • Young median age, slightly more males than females; among hispanics, lowest median income except for Puerto Rican families; blue collar jobs predominant
  • significantly larger than other ethnic families; lowest level of education (median school years); disproportionate number low S.E.S
cuban american family immigration
Cuban American Family - Immigration
  • Long term immigration patterns between Cuba & Florida; key turning point 1/1/59 with advent of Castro
  • By 1986, U.S. Cuban population = 1 million
  • Six stages of immigration between 1959-80 - commercial flights, airlifts, fewer by small boats & rafts
cuban american family
Cuban American Family
  • Because of key economic role of women, traditional patriarchal structure of family disrupted; now more egalitarian in role relations
  • Key feature - Biculturalism & bilingualism - Cubans, significant impact on host culture - 3 stages: acculturation, retention of original Cuban culture, syncretism (all within family unit); also a source of tension between parents & children
puerto rican american family
Puerto Rican American Family
  • Immigration of working class linked to political-economic relation between two countries with major immigration after WWII, especially in 1950’s with industrialization efforts in P.R.
  • Source of cheap labor in services agriculture & garment industry; most between ages 15-39.
  • Majority in urban areas, New York; migration marked by ebb & flow, marked return migration
puerto rican american family52
Puerto Rican American Family
  • modified extended family predominant with emphasis on family interdependence, needing others for support (P.D.N.)
  • emphasis on compadrazgo, hijos de crianza
  • machismo & marianismo (mother role key)
  • respeto - generalized deference to superiors; emphasis on personalismo - face to face, informal, personal relations
puerto rican american family53
Puerto Rican American Family
  • High number of poor, female headed households, blue collar, service jobs; out-group marriage patterns (‘49-’69) indicate rapid assimilation
  • Four types of familial household structures: modified extended family; nuclear family; blended nuclear (Fa/Mo/So/Da/Step children); single parent families - typology overlooks blending of forms
puerto rican american family54
Puerto Rican American Family
  • Modified extended family primary support system, 1st & 2nd generations
  • Emphasis on familism, interdependence, family unity (obligation for assistance)
  • Respeto related to age/sex hierarchy - status increases with age (elder parents)
  • Strict dichotomy between genders (ideology of male dominance prevails)
zapotec peasants
Zapotec Peasants
  • agricultural village in Oaxaca, Mexico; pop. ~1,250 in late ‘60’s; patrilocal, ext. family, ideal
  • 3 central values representing good:
    • humility (we are all equally poor, attend to others, obedience to authority);
    • trust (character, taking people at word);
    • respect (manipulating social hierarchy to benefit one, granting favors)
zapotec peasants56
Zapotec Peasants
  • evil - institutionalized envy - opposite of that which is good - always making invidious comparisons; mark of disharmony, witchcraft
  • categories of kin - “insiders” (close to me) vs “outsiders” (people who mean nothing, or may be something to me); is an endogamous village, thus a matter of manipulating kin ties
  • deviant person is one with defective kin ties;
zapotec peasant ideology
Zapotec Peasant Ideology
  • community ideology re: sexual behavior - only between married individuals, are punished for extramarital affairs; incest, abhorrent to community, punished by authorities.
  • reality - only person without extramarital affairs is the deviant; no clear notion of adultery; gossip about sexual affairs constant, but one who informs is viewed as most deviant; incest occurs often; no real punishment for adultery
zapotec peasants58
Zapotec Peasants
  • major ritual & religious symbols of society built upon association with “insiders”
  • compadrazgo ties extend to 4 generations; everyone related thru blood & marriage
  • strategy to follow - keep number of insider ties to minimum needed to maximize security
the korean american family history
The Korean-American Family - History
  • pioneer immigration to Hawaii 1903-05 (uneducated, unskilled laborers);
  • Korean war brides, 1950's - intermarriage with servicemen, higher divorce rates
  • main immigration after 1965 Immigration Act (3rd largest after Mexicans & Filipinos, key emphasis on family unity - increased numbers of kin brought over), educated professionals & technicians
the korean american family
The Korean-American Family
  • traditional family - patriarchal, strong influence of Confucianism (respect for & obedience to parents & elders, filial piety/ancestor worship);
  • married women did not work, subordinate to husband’s authority
  • education viewed as the main avenue for social mobility
new korean immigrants
New Korean Immigrants
  • primarily West Coast (30% in California) - in large urban areas - Los Angeles, New York, Chicago
  • larger families (live with parents until marriage), lower divorce rate than Americans (higher than in Korea)
  • high female labor-force participation rate - mostly in small businesses --grocery stores, green groceries, fast food services (unable to find jobs to match status in Korea);
new korean immigrants62
New Korean Immigrants
  • double day for women; continued traditional socialization for boys & girls
  • strengthened conjugal ties, focus on family (positive dependency); strong extended kin ties
  • primary area of inter-group conflict - white suppliers, black ghetto residents
the chinese american family
The Chinese-American Family
  • In the U.S., significant numbers for 130+ years; largest Asian group in U.S.
  • little research on Chinese-American family, no typical family
  • major features - stable family unit (low divorce & illegitimacy); close ties between generations; economic self-sufficiency
the chinese american family64
The Chinese-American Family
  • traditional family - patriarchal, patrilocal, patrilineal - father & eldest son primary authority; ancestor worship, filial piety (significance of tzu); concept of "face"
  • Acculturation - lessening of above, also reflected in the increase in interracial marriages among young
chinese immigration patterns
Chinese Immigration Patterns
  • "Mutilated"/"split" family (1850-1920) -primarily men (Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882, 1888 Scott Act)
  • Small producer family (1920-43) - second generation Chinese population (discrimination of 1924 Immigration Act - citizens with chinese ancestry not allowed to send for wives & families)
chinese immigration patterns66
Chinese Immigration Patterns
  • Normalization of Chinese family (1943-65) - 1945 War Brides Act, 1948 Displaced Persons Act
  • Ghetto & professional Chinese family (1965-present) - ghetto - dual worker family, new immigrants in Chinatown (segregation work & family life); professional - middle-class, white-collar, suburbs, more modern & cosmopolitan - "semiextended" family points to continued importance of kin ties
male dominance in peasant families four features of peasant society
Male Dominance in Peasant Families Four Features of Peasant Society
  • Clearcut ideology of male dominance - does not necessarily reflect the reality of the peasant situation particularly with respect to the role women play.
  • A preference toward males in inheritance rules and residence patterns.
male dominance in peasant families
Male Dominance in Peasant Families
  • Predominance of males in prestigious productive activities, namely agriculture, which does NOT necessarily indicate who controls or makes the most decisions regarding the allocation of products
  • Social segregation of the sexes with an emphasis on male authority within the household
presence of complementary roles in the peasant family
Presence of Complementary Roles in the Peasant Family
  • Women are primarily associated with the domestic domain, which is of central importance in peasant society (source of female power)
  • Peasants are relatively powerless in their relationship to the larger society of which they are a part, and face-to-face interaction is significant within the community.
presence of complementary roles in the peasant family70
Presence of Complementary Roles in the Peasant Family
  • Ergo, informal relationships and forms of power are as significant as formal authorized relations and forms of power (this serves as a second basis of female power)
  • Males have greater access to jural and other formal rights and are occupied with activities overtly considered to be important. (This is the basis of the ideology of male dominance.)
peasant family structure
Peasant Family Structure
  • Men and women are equally dependent on each other in important ways. (Source of the balance of power between the sexes.).
  • In summary, the first two components above, provide the basis for feminine power; the third insures the presence of an ideology of male dominance; and the fourth, maintenance of a balance of power between the sexes (complementarity) which is achieved by acting out the "myth" of male dominance.
vietnamese american family
Vietnamese American Family
  • Approximately 600,000 currently in U.S., more than 1 million have fled to the West
  • Traditional society/culture - 4 classes: scholars (most respected); peasant farmers; craftsmen; businessmen
  • village next in importance after family as a positive dependency network
  • patriarchal family, center of individual’s life
history of immigration four waves
History of Immigration - Four Waves
  • Educated - end of the war, April ‘75, more educated, successful adaptation
  • Boat people - ‘78-’79 - ethnic chinese vietnamese business people
  • Escapees - via Thailand, Malaysia, walked across Laos etc.
  • Orderly departees emigrated in “79 after Viet. govt. allowed them to join relatives abroad
traditional vietnamese extended family ho
Traditional Vietnamese Extended Family - Ho
  • Truong Toc - head of family, oldest male, responsible for care of ancestors
  • Mother - no power, privileges, obey father, husband, eldest son; only area of equality, property & debts; had rights only as a mother, obeyed & respected by children
  • Piety for parents, most significant moral obligation
traditional socialization marriage
Traditional Socialization & Marriage
  • sex segregation in socialization, fa-son; mo-da; mother blamed for child’s misconduct
  • siblings, age-hierarchy significant; share all within family
  • boys, formal schooling, not for girls
  • boys - may marry at 16 (usually later), girls, 13; arranged by family; emphasis on children; patrilocal residence; taboo to marry foreigners
vietnamese family in america
Vietnamese Family in America
  • U.S. - Texas & especially California (highest number of SE Asian refugees)
  • significant values - care for family members, family first before individual, self-sufficiency based on family;
  • compared with other Asian Americans, have highest percentage of extended families (55%)
vietnamese family in america77
Vietnamese Family in America
  • four family patterns - nuclear family; incomplete extended family; broken family (father or mother, some children, rest in Vietnam or dead); one person family
  • young population; only Asian group with high percentage of female-headed households
vietnamese family in america78
Vietnamese Family in America
  • Changes - more freedom/independence by young; father less absolute control;
  • women, significantly higher fertility than other Asian Americans (fewer kids w/ more education);
  • Conflicts: Vietnamese vs American identity (“marginal man”), parents & children; role conflict between husband/wife; less respect for aged
japanese american family
Japanese American Family
  • Difficulties attached to stereotypes persist because are localized to California & Hawaii, & because little research done until recently
  • Significant immigration after 1890 - young male agricultural workers (discrimination similar to Chinese)
japanese americans
Japanese Americans
  • Issei - immigrants (1st generation, restrictive rules); Nisei (2nd generation - American born, 1910-45); Sansei (3rd generation)
  • Issei - membership by situation - identity w/ group for social support, loyalty; society seen as a large family; group control of behavior
japanese americans issei
Japanese Americans - Issei
  • importance of ie, traditional household - residence important, arranged marriages, patriarchal, emphasis on eldest son
  • rank & status determined by age, sex, and period of service (seniority) - significance of enryo (restraint/reserve)
japanese american family82
Japanese American Family
  • influence of Japanese culture decreases w/ each generation, 1/3rd Jap. women & increasing number of males marry out (5% Issei,15% Nisei, 50%+ Sansei);
  • relatively slow acculturation due to descrimination
japanese american family values
Japanese American Family Values
  • emphasis on duties & responsibilities - filial piety (family unity);
  • socialization via dependence on group, avoid direct confrontation, “losing face”;
  • enryo - showing restraint, awareness of hierarchial status
  • amae - need to be loved/cherished, depend on & presume another’s benevolence
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