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Building A Better Heart Second Chance: artificial heart. Qing Ye Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery Ren Ji Hospital. Milestones in artificial heart. 1953, a heart-lung machine designed by Dr. John Gibbon is used in a successful open-heart surgery,

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building a better heart second chance artificial heart

Building A Better HeartSecond Chance: artificial heart

Qing YeDepartment of Cardiothoracic Surgery Ren Ji Hospital

milestones in artificial heart

Milestones in artificial heart

1953, a heart-lung machine designed by Dr. John

Gibbon is used in a successful open-heart surgery,

demonstrating that an artificial device can

temporarily mimic the functions of the heart

1955, a team of scientists led by Willem Kolff,

tested their model in animals


1966, Dr. Michael

  • DeBakey of Houston
  • successfully implants a
  • partial artificial heart

1964, the National Heart, Lung and Blood

Institute sets a goal of designing a total artificial

heart by 1970


1967, Dr. Christiaan Barnard performs the first successful

human heart transplant. The patients, 53-year-old dentist

Louis Washkansky, dies 18 days after surgery in South



In 1969, a team led by

Denton Cooley of the

Texas Heart Institute

successfully kept a human

patient alive for more than

sixty hours with their

model (temporary). The

patient gets a heart

transplant three days later

but then dies 1 ½ days



In 1982, a team led by William DeVries of the University

of Utah implanted the Jarvik-7 into a patient named

Barney Clark, who survived with Jarvik-7 for 112 days

1982-1985, Dr. William DeVries carries out a series of

five implants of the Jarvik total artificial heart

William Schroeder, lived 620 days, dying in

August 1986 at age 54


1994, the Food and Drug Administration approves the Left Ventricular Assist Device, which helps failing hearts continue to function

2000, A man in Isreal becomes the first recipient of the Jarvik 2000, the first total artificial heart that can maintain blood flow in addition to generating a pulse

2001, doctors at Jewish Hospital in Louisville, Ky., implant the first self-contained, mechanical heart replacement into a patient

Two recipient: Robert Tools & Tom Christerson

robert jarvik

Robert Jarvik

He was born in Michigan

on May 11, 1946

In 1964, his father became

ill with heart disease and

had to have open heart


robert jarvik9

Robert Jarvik

Jarvik became very interested in medicine at that point and began to think about possible designs for artificial hearts that could help people like his father

He invented Jarvik-7 and Jarvik-2000

jarvik 7


Jarvik 2000

prof willem j kolff

Prof. Willem J Kolff

He was born in Leiden,


Graduated from the

University of Leiden

In 1955, he implanted an

artificial heart into a dog

Tutor of Dr. Robert


1981, he applied to FDA

dr william devries

Dr. William deVries

An American cardiothoracic


Receiving his MD degree from the University of Utah in 1970

As a resident in cardiovascular/

thoracic surgery at Duke University Medical Center

Assistant professor of surgery at the University of Utah until 1984

dr william devries13

Dr. William deVries

Since 1984, he has been

director of the artificial heart

project of the Humana Hospital

Audubon in Louisville,


Performed the first successful

permanent artificial heart

implant for Barney Clark by

using an artificial device

designed by Dr. Robert Jarvik

dr barney clark

Dr. Barney Clark

An 61year old retired

dentist from Seattle

First recipient of the

man-made artificial

heart on Dec 1, 1982 at

the Utah Medical


dr barney clark15

Dr. Barney Clark

Six years before the transplant,

he had contracted a mysterious

viral infection, which made his

cardiac muscle flabby, weak

and swollen from a lack of

blood flow

Because of hypertension and

his age, he was not an

acceptable candidate at any

heart transplantation center

dr barney clark16

Dr. Barney Clark

He was introduced by his private doctor to Dr. Willim


The meeting included visits to laboratories where the

Jarvik-7 was manufactured and the animal barn where

they observed calves/sheep with similar heart implants

He was given an 11-page consent form

There was no guarantee that the operation would

increase Clark’s life span, no guarantee he would regain

his independence

dr barney clark17

Dr. Barney Clark

The consent form stated “I recognize that if the artificial heart device fails, death or serious injury is the near certain result. I nevertheless accept the risk of substantial and serious harm, including death, implementation of the artificial heart device can be demonstrated

dr barney clark18

Dr. Barney Clark

He signed a consent form on Nov

30, 1982 at 9:52 p.m after being

interviewed by six members of a

special heart subcommittee at

University of Utah Medical Center

The surgery was scheduled at the

morning of Dec 2, 1982

However, he was immediately

rushed into the operating

room because of his deteriorating

heart on Dec 1, 1982 at 10:30 p.m.

dr barney clark19

Dr. Barney Clark

He survived with Jarvik-7 for

112 days

A serious of complication

led to Clark’s death from

circulatory and multi-organ

collapse on March 23 at

10:02 p.m.

two recipients of abicor artificial heart

Two recipients of AbiCor artificial heart

Robert Tools, first recipient of AbiCor artificial heart was died five months after implantation, 2001

two recipients of abicor artificial heart21

Two recipients of AbiCor artificial heart

Tom Christerson, second recipient of AbiCor artificial heart are still alive for more than one year

artificial hearts abandoned

Artificial hearts abandoned

By the end of the ’80s, the Jarvik devices had been

implanted to sustain patients waiting for transplants

Since then, development of an improved artificial heart

has continued

Scientists continue to work on designs for an artificial

heart that could provide a realistic, permanent option for


Jarvik is now working on the Jarvik 2000, a thumb-sized

heart pump

artificial hearts abandoned23

Artificial hearts abandoned

Universal infection


Total artificial heart may be better used as a bridge to transplantation