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  1. Why non-decomposable waste is being poorly managed in high-mountain regions of contemporary Azerbaijan, and what are the ways to solve the problem Dilara Jafarova

  2. Global concern • Sustainable Development • the guiding vision for both industrialized and developing countries • “development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. • Societies need to manage three types of capital • economic, social, and environmental

  3. Ongoing projects in Azerbaijan • Currently level of nonfood solid domestic waste (SDW) growth in Azerbaijan constitutes 5% per year. According to the forecast for Baku, amount of SDW may increase 2.2 times in the next 15 years • Current projects • Integrated Solid Waste Management Project– Absheron Penincula • Several projects in major towns • None in highland regions

  4. Research Question & Hypothesis • Research question • What is the main reason why highlands of Azerbaijan are being littered and what is the attitude of local population towards the problem? • Research hypothesis • Population of highland regions doesn’t yet recognize the problem. Villagers are not environmentally educated, and are not aware about the threat posed by non-decomposable waste, such as decomposition term and pollution from burning plastic. They treat all the waste as decomposable, perceiving that nature can digest everything. Therefore non-decomposable waste, such as plastic is not congregated in special places, making further collection almost impossible.

  5. Research MethodologyQuantitativemethods • Desk review of existing legislation and reports • Quantitative methods • survey(Sample of 150 respondents) • 15-20 local villagers from each village • Qualitative methods • field observations • focus groups discussions

  6. Research Methodology Quantitativeresearch

  7. Research MethodologyQualitative methods • field observations • focus groups discussions

  8. Current Solid Waste Management situation in highland villages of Azerbaijan • Coverage and frequency of waste collection • Recycling and utilization • Environmental awareness of highland population and its’ attitude towards the problem • Social capital and solid waste management • Institutional problems and constraints

  9. Coverage and frequency of waste collection • Collection services are not provided to population in highland regions 100% of respondents answered negatively to the question if the waste is being collected and removed from the villages • Most of the times rivers and cannels become locations for illegal dumps

  10. SDW disposal • Incineration • Burying • Disposal to the dump (usually river side)

  11. SDW disposal & Recycling • Glass disposal methods by population • Plastic disposal methods by population

  12. SDW Utilization • Some waste is utilized by composting

  13. Environmental awareness Generally level of environmental awareness is low Environmental awareness by gender

  14. Environmental awareness Level of environmental education is very dependent to environmental trainings received

  15. Decomposition terms of packaging according to villagers opinion

  16. Attitude of local population towards the problem “Thanks we have the river in the village, it washes the garbage away”

  17. Social capital and solid waste management • Social capital consists of social networks ("networks of civic engagement") and associated norms that have an effect on the productivity of the community • Communities with stronger internal organizations perform better in managing SDW (holds true for other collective projects) • much evidence exists that local associations play a key role in environmental management • We could find a validation to this proposition in Ivanovka village

  18. Institutional problems and constraints: • Unclear legislative framework • Municipalities of highland villages are unable to raise sufficient financial resources to cover waste management costs • Municipalities are very small and located in remote distance from each other, therefore each is unable to experience economies of scale in SDW management • Communities have other problems which they think are priorities nowadays, such as water and electricity supply. • Communities don’t have necessary machinery to implement SDW management initiatives. • Inability of belediyye to raise sufficient funds • Low experience in “project management”

  19. Thank you very much for your attention