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Why do juveniles who come from “good” families become delinquents?. Crime is pleasurable. Jack Katz Seductions of Crime James Q Wilson Thinking About Crime. Review of Deterrence Theory. Deterrence Specific Deterrence General Deterrence Absolute deterrence Incapacitation

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Presentation Transcript
crime is pleasurable
Crime is pleasurable
  • Jack Katz

Seductions of Crime

  • James Q Wilson

Thinking About Crime

review of deterrence theory
Review of Deterrence Theory
  • Deterrence
  • Specific Deterrence
  • General Deterrence
  • Absolute deterrence
  • Incapacitation
  • Certainty and celerity
products of classical criminology
Products of Classical Criminology
  • Determinate Sentencing
  • Truth in sentencing
rational choice theory1
Rational Choice Theory
  • Deterrence Theory is Crime or Event Based
  • Rational Choice Theory is based on Economics
rational choice theory2
Rational Choice Theory
  • Expected Utility, a principal of economic theory
  • MAXIMIZE PROFITS
  • MINIMIZE LOSSES
rational choice
Rational Choice
  • Beyond Probation
  • Fear that the Criminal Justice System cannot protect the Public
rational choice1
Rational Choice

What affects “expected utility?”

1. Probability of arrest/conviction

2. Severity of punishment

3. “Other variables”

a. Income available in legal or illegal activities

b. Willingness to commit an illegal act

c. Intelligence, age, education, family upbringing….

rational choice2
Rational Choice

Rational Calculation of Pleasure vs Pain

Do the benefits of this crime outweigh what I am going to get?

in support of rational choice
In Support of Rational Choice
  • White Collar Crimes
  • Criminal Conspiracies
burglary and rational choice
Burglary And Rational Choice
  • Time of Commission
    • What Time do Burglars work?
    • What days?
    • Where do they work?
rational choice tunnell
Rational Choice Tunnell
  • Tunnell “ The Motivation to Commit Property Crime”
  • 53 out of 60, 88% reported that money was the motivating factor
  • 3 of 60 reported a sense of accomplishment
  • 2 Reported crime as “sporting”
  • 2 reported vengeance
evaluating rational choice
Evaluating Rational Choice

Empirical Support?

Policy Implication?

rational choice3
Rational Choice
  • Example of factors that explain initial involvement in crime :

Background Factors

Previous experience

Solutions evaluated

project ceasefire
Project CEASEFIRE
  • Study Completed By University of Missori, Kansas
  • Focused Deterrence
project ceasefire1
Project CEASEFIRE
  • 47% Felons Said it Affected Whether they would carry a Gun
  • 2% Reduction of Gun Crimes by Felons
  • In Kansas City, Kansas 7% reduction
routine activities
Routine Activities
  • A Personal or Property crime Requires
    • Perpetrator
    • Victim
    • Object of property
routine activities variables
Routine Activities Variables
  • Motivated Offenders
  • Suitable Targets
  • Capable Guardians
the criminal event
The Criminal Event
  • Focus on predictors of specific crimes, look at immediate (situational) factors
  • Area
    • Easily accessible, few police patrols, low security
  • Home
motivated offenders taken for granted
Motivated offenders taken for granted

Assumption is that they are always present

lack of capable guardianship
Lack of Capable Guardianship
  • Strength in numbers
  • Protection from police
    • Less emphasis in this over time
  • Informal social control
  • Time spent at home
suitable targets
Suitable Targets
  • Value ($, ability to fence)
  • Visibility (sights and sounds)
  • Accessibility (why autos are victimized)
  • Weight and Mobility (high tech movement)
policy implications
Policy Implications
  • Physical Crime Prevention
    • Target Hardening
    • Construction
    • Strength in Number
  • Defensible Space
    • Criminal Hot Spots as convergence of three elements