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Water Resources. 1. Hydrologic Cycle and Water Reservoirs 2. Floods and Flood Control 3. Use of Water 4. Water Composition 5. Water Problems. Hydrologic Cycle. Distribution of Water (from “ Resources of the Earth ” 1972 data).

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water resources
Water Resources
  • 1. Hydrologic Cycle and Water Reservoirs
  • 2. Floods and Flood Control
  • 3. Use of Water
  • 4. Water Composition
  • 5. Water Problems
distribution of water h ttp ga water usgs gov edu waterdistribution html 1997 data
Distribution of Waterhttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/waterdistribution.html (1997 data)
slide6
Bibliographical Acknowledgment

referenced publication for content development

Peixoto and Kettani, 1973 The Control of the Water CycleScientific American - Vol. 228 - pp. 46-6

heat capacity of water
Heat Capacity of Water
  • This means that water has the ability to absorb and hold heat with a minimal change in temperature
  • Why?
  • When water evaporates it takes 540 cal/gm. This means that evaporation creates a cooling effect.
  • Ice going to water releases 80 cal/gm, thus releasing heat
world water resources
World water resources

http://www.worldmapper.org/

evaporation mean annual u s
Evaporation (mean annual U.S.)

http://geochange.er.usgs.gov/sw/changes/natural/et/

when ppt e t
When ppt >>> e/t
  • Then we get rivers and streams
  • Eastern NA—water surplus
  • Western US—water deficiency
  • Plays a role in population density in U.S. and Canada
freshwater reservoirs
Freshwater Reservoirs
  • Rivers and Streams
  • Lakes
  • Icecaps
  • Groundwater
groundwater
Groundwater
  • Much greater in volume than either lakes or streams
  • Non-renewable in our lifetime
water table
Water Table
  • Surface below which pores and fractures of rocks and overburden are water filled
what is an aquifer
What is an aquifer?
  • Geologic formation that possesses porosity and permeability
water resources1
Water Resources
  • 1. Hydrologic Cycle and Water Reservoirs
  • 2. Floods and Flood Control
  • 3. Use of Water
  • 4. Water Composition
  • 5. Water Problems
surface water floods flood control
Surface Water/Floods/Flood Control
  • Surface water is water that flows off the land in streams and rivers
  • What is it dependent upon??
slide21
Amount of precipitation
  • Slope and Length of drainage basin
  • Rock and soil type of drainage basin
  • Vegetation
  • Extent of impermeable areas
when does flooding occur
When does flooding occur?
  • When surface run-of exceeds a normal stream channel’s capacity and water spreads out onto the flood plain
  • Is this a problem?
what do we do to minimize flooding
What do we do to minimize flooding?
  • 1. build dams
  • 2. build levees
  • 3. create channels (channelization)
  • 4. Moveable dams—Thames
dams pro
Dams: pro
  • 1. Do help with flood control
  • 2. Supply electricity
  • 3. Provide recreation
  • 4. Sources of water for irrigation
  • 5. Increases groundwater
  • Does anyone see some inconsistency here?
dams con
Dams: con
  • 1. Sediment catchment
  • 2. Increased evaporation
  • 3. Loss of land
  • 4. Interruption of river transport and fish migration
  • 5. Environmental alteration
some dams
Some Dams
  • Aswan High Dam
three gorges dam http svs gsfc nasa gov vis a000000 a003400 a003433 topm
Three Gorges Damhttp://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a003400/a003433/#topm
channelization
Channelization
  • Replacement of a meandering stream by a deeper, straighter channel
drawbacks
Drawbacks
  • Transfer of flooding
  • Flood plain doesn’t get new sediment
drawbacks of channelization
Drawbacks of Channelization
  • Increased erosion
  • Transfer of flooding downstream
  • Reduced natural filtering of water and drainage basin
  • Loss of wetlands
  • Reduction in available water for general use
  • Less evapotranspiration
  • Less infiltration
  • Lower ground water levels
  • Larger variations in flow rates
  • Reduction in wildlife
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