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VERTEBRATE EVOLUTION AND DIVERSITY. Vertebrates have unique endoskeletons composed of: A cranium (skull) A backbone made of a series of bones called vertebrae. Cranium (protects brain). Vertebra. Figure 17.26. Characteristics of Chordates.

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Vertebrate evolution and diversity
VERTEBRATE EVOLUTION AND DIVERSITY

  • Vertebrates have unique endoskeletons composed of:

    • A cranium (skull)

    • A backbone made of a series of bones called vertebrae


Vertebrate evolution and diversity

Cranium

(protects brain)

Vertebra

Figure 17.26


Characteristics of chordates
Characteristics of Chordates

  • Chordates (phylum Chordata) all share four key features that appear in the embryo and sometimes the adult:

    • A dorsal, hollow nerve cord

    • A notochord

    • Pharyngeal slits

    • A post-anal tail


Vertebrate evolution and diversity

Dorsal,

hollow

nerve cord

Notochord

Brain

Muscle segments

Mouth

Anus

Post-anal

tail

Pharyngeal

slits

Figure 17.27


Vertebrate evolution and diversity


Vertebrate evolution and diversity


Vertebrate evolution and diversity

Mouth apparent in the:

Tail

Lancelet

Tunicates

Figure 17.28


Vertebrate evolution and diversity

Tunicates apparent in the:

Chordates

Ancestral

chordate

Lancelets

Hagfishes

Lampreys

Vertebrates

Cartilaginous

fishes

Bony fishes

Amphibians

Tetrapods

Reptiles

Amniotes

Mammals

Figure 17.29


Vertebrate evolution and diversity

(a) Hagfish (inset: slime) apparent in the:

Figure 17.30a


Vertebrate evolution and diversity

  • Lampreys: apparent in the:

    • Are vertebrates

    • Have a cranium

    • But lack jaws


Vertebrate evolution and diversity

(b) Lamprey (inset: mouth) apparent in the:

Figure 17.30b


Vertebrate evolution and diversity


Vertebrate evolution and diversity

Lateral line apparent in the:

(c) Shark, a cartilaginous fish

Figure 17.30c


Vertebrate evolution and diversity

  • And apparent in the: bony fishes with a skeleton reinforced by hard calcium salts

  • Bony fishes include:

    • Ray-finned fishes

    • Lungfishes

    • Lobe-finned fishes


  • Vertebrate evolution and diversity

    Operculum apparent in the:

    Lateral line

    (d) Bony fish

    Figure 17.30d


    Vertebrate evolution and diversity

    • Cartilaginous and bony fishes have a apparent in the:lateral line system that detects minor vibrations in the water.

    • To provide lift off the bottom:

      • Cartilaginous fish must swim but

      • Bony fish have swim bladders, gas-filled sacs that make them buoyant


    Amphibians
    Amphibians apparent in the:

    • Amphibians:

      • Exhibit a mixture of aquatic and terrestrial adaptations

      • Usually need water to reproduce

      • Typically undergo metamorphosis from an aquatic larva to a terrestrial adult

      • Were the first vertebrates to colonize land

      • Descended from fishes that had lungs and fins with muscles


    Vertebrate evolution and diversity

    (a) Tadpole and adult golden palm tree frog apparent in the:

    Red-eyed tree frog

    Texas barred tiger salamander

    (b) Frogs and salamanders: the two major groups of amphibians

    Figure 17.31


    Vertebrate evolution and diversity


    Reptiles
    Reptiles apparent in the:

    • Reptiles (including birds) and mammals are amniotes, which produce amniotic eggs that consist of a fluid-filled shell inside of which the embryo develops.

    • Reptile adaptations to living on land include:

      • Amniotic eggs

      • Scaled, waterproof skin


    Vertebrate evolution and diversity

    • Reptiles include: apparent in the:

      • Snakes

      • Lizards

      • Turtles

      • Crocodiles

      • Alligators

      • Birds


    Vertebrate evolution and diversity

    Snake apparent in the:

    Lizard

    Turtle

    Figure 17.33


    Birds
    Birds apparent in the:

    • Recent genetic evidence shows that birds evolved from a lineage of small, two-legged dinosaurs.

    • Birds have many adaptations that make them lighter in flight:

      • Honeycombed bones

      • One instead of two ovaries

      • A beak instead of teeth

    • Unlike other reptiles, birds are endotherms, maintaining a warmer and steady body temperature.


    Mammals
    Mammals apparent in the:

    • The first true mammals:

      • Arose about 200 million years ago

      • Were probably small, nocturnal insect-eaters

    • Most mammals are terrestrial although dolphins, porpoises, and whales are totally aquatic.

    • Mammalian hallmarks are:

      • Hair

      • Mammary glands that produce milk, which nourishes the young


    Vertebrate evolution and diversity


    Vertebrate evolution and diversity

    Monotremes apparent in the:

    (hatched from eggs)

    Echidna adult and egg

    Figure 17.35a


    Vertebrate evolution and diversity

    • Marsupials apparent in the:, pouched mammals with a placenta


    Vertebrate evolution and diversity

    Marsupials apparent in the:

    (embryonic at birth)

    Kangaroo newborn and mother

    Figure 17.35b


    Vertebrate evolution and diversity

    • And apparent in the:eutherians, placental mammals


    Vertebrate evolution and diversity

    Eutherians apparent in the:

    (fully developed at birth)

    Wildebeest newborn and mother

    Figure 17.35c


    Vertebrate evolution and diversity


    Vertebrate evolution and diversity

    Ring-tailed shaped by the demands of living in trees. These characteristics include:

    lemur

    Tarsier

    Black spider monkey

    (New World monkey)

    Orangutan (ape)

    Gibbon (ape)

    Patas monkey (Old World monkey)

    Gorilla (ape)

    Chimpanzee (ape)

    Human

    Figure 17.37


    Vertebrate evolution and diversity


    Australopithecus and the antiquity of bipedalism
    Australopithecus times during human evolution. and the Antiquity of Bipedalism

    • Before there was the genus Homo, several hominid species of the genus Australopithecus walked the African savanna.

    • Fossil evidence pushes bipedalism in A. afarensis back to at least 4 million years ago.


    Vertebrate evolution and diversity

    (a) times during human evolution.Australopithecus

    afarensis skeleton

    (b) Ancient footprints

    (c) Model of an

    Australopithecus

    afarensis male

    Figure 17.39


    Homo habilis and the evolution of inventive minds
    Homo times during human evolution.Habilis and the Evolution of Inventive Minds

    • Homo habilis, “handy-man”:

      • Had a larger brain, intermediate in size between Australopithecus and modern humans

      • Walked upright

      • Made stone tools that enhanced hunting, gathering, and scavenging on the African savanna


    Homo erectus and the global dispersal of humanity
    Homo Erectus times during human evolution. and the Global Dispersal of Humanity

    • Homo erectus was the first species to extend humanity’s range from Africa to other continents.

    • The global dispersal began about 1.8 million years ago.

    • Homo erectus:

      • Was taller than H. habilis

      • Had a larger brain

      • Gave rise to Neanderthals

    © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.


    The origin and dispersal of homo sapiens
    The Origin and Dispersal of times during human evolution.Homo Sapiens

    • The oldest known fossils of our own species, Homo sapiens:

      • Were discovered in Ethiopia

      • Date from 160,000 to 195,000 years ago

    • DNA studies strongly suggest that all living humans can trace their ancestry back to a single African Homo sapiens woman who lived 160,000 to 200,000 years ago.