THE TRANSITION
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THE TRANSITION METALS. Transition means “an in between state” and the transition elements come in between Group 2 and Group 3. Gp 2. Gp 3. H. He. Li. Be. B. C. N. O. F. Ne. Na. Mg. Al. Si. P. S. Cl. Ar. K. Ca. Sc. Ti. V. Cr. Mn. Fe. Co. Ni. Cu. Zn. Ga. Ge.

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The transition elements

Transition means “an in between state” and the transition elements come in between Group 2 and Group 3.

Gp 2

Gp 3

H

He

Li

Be

B

C

N

O

F

Ne

Na

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

Ar

K

Ca

Sc

Ti

V

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

Rb

Sr

Y

Zr

Nb

Mo

Tc

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

I

Xe

Cs

Ba

La

Hf

Ta

W

Re

Os

Ir

Pt

Au

Hg

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

At

Rn

Fr

Ra

Ac

Rf

Db

Sg

Bh

Hs

Mt

?

?

?

The Transition elements

Transition Elements


General characteristics

They often act as catalysts.

They have

high melting

points.

They have

high density.

They are less reactive

than Group 1 or

Group 2 metals.

They mostly form

coloured

compounds.

Transition metals

are often referred to

as ‘typical’ metals.

General Characteristics

Transition

Elements


Properties density

Similarities are more noticeable than differences although there are still some broad patterns.

They are all dense which is what we expect of metals.

Sc

Ti

V

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Properties – density


Properties melting point

Melting points show no regular pattern – other than nearly all being high which is typical of metals.

(Note zinc doesn’t fit very well on either density or melting point.)

Sc

Ti

V

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Properties – melting point


Properties reactivity

Again it is similarities that stand out rather than differences: they tend to react relatively slowly (e.g.) with air, water and acid.

The general trend is to reduced activity across the Periodic Table but again the trend is far from perfect with zinc in particular being more reactive than you might expect.

Sc

Ti

V

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Properties – reactivity

Rusting: a slow but costly process!

General reduced reactivity


Properties catalysis

A catalyst is a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being used up.

Catalysts are hugely valuable in industry where they can save time and energy.

Many transition elements ( and their compounds) are catalysts.

Ni

Ti

V

Fe

Used in plastic manufacture

Used in oil hydrogenation

Properties – catalysis


Transition metals

The three most commonly known transition elements are iron or steel, copper and zinc.

iron or steel

copper

zinc

Electrical and plumbing work

General engineering metal

Galvanising steel to protect it

Uses


Transition metals

Pair the metal up with its uses or steel, copper and zinc.

copper

iron or steel

zinc


Transition metals

Pair the metal catalyst with the substance. or steel, copper and zinc.

Fe

Ni

Ti

V



Transition metals

Which is a true statement about most words.

transition elements?

They are non-metals.

They are light (low density).

They are strong.

They are non-conductors.


Transition metals

Which of these does copper words.NOT tend to be

used for?

Plumbing work.

Electrical work

Ornaments and jewellery

Tools


Transition metals

Transition elements can speed up other reactions without getting used up in the process.

What do we call substances that do this?

Capitalists

Catalysts

Catholics

Catapults


Transition metals

Transition elements often form coloured compounds. getting used up in the process.

What colour compound does copper usually form?

Blue

Yellow

Red

Violet


Transition metals

How would you describe the reactivity of transition elements within the Periodic Table?

Always more reactive across periods (left to right).

Generally less reactive across periods (left to right).

No change in reactivity.

Changes but no trends in reactivity.