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The Post-Cold War World: the “end of history?” The Clash of Civilisations World Politics Today The Post-Cold War World: the “end of history?” History “development of men and nations” “chronological narrative of events” History

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The Post-Cold War World: the “end of history?”
  • The Clash of Civilisations
  • World Politics Today
  • “development of men and nations”
  • “chronological narrative of events”
francis fukuyama
Francis Fukuyama
  • Former US State Department official
  • Third World Expert
  • 1989 wrote “The End of History & the Last

Man Standing”

  • 1994 becomes a book
francis fukuyama7
Francis Fukuyama
  • Fukuyama’s definition of history – “single,

coherent, evolutionary process”

  • Fukuyama – history since time of French Revolution has been driven by a conflict of forces supporting collectivism & those supporting “bourgeois democracy”
francis fukuyama8
Francis Fukuyama
  • What were the driving forces in the twentieth century or during the Cold War?
  • 2 competing systems – different ideologies & planned economy versus capitalism
end of the cold war
End of the Cold War
  • Why changes in the Soviet Union under Gorbachev?
  • Various but economic stagnation of great importance – planned economic system not working
  • Fukuyama believes once system opened up people in Eastern Europe turned their backs on planned economy and chose capitalism
  • “end of history” really means that liberal democracy had defeated all other systems – it is the best system
  • “The triumph of the West…an unabashed victory of economic & political liberalism…&the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism.”
  • The West/US won the Cold War
liberal democracy
Liberal Democracy
  • Elections
  • Market allowed to decide – all areas of life
  • Not told what to do or think
  • System is better than any other –communism/fascism
liberal democracy12
Liberal Democracy
  • Liberal democracy will make the world more safe
  • (1) democracies do not go to war against

each other

  • (2) globalisation – interdependence
  • (3) great faith in International Organizations
liberal democracy13
Liberal Democracy

1990s West pushing this – “Washington consensus”

Increased role of the International Monetary

Fund/World Bank/World Trade Organisation

Does not matter if gap rich/poor increases – experiment most important thing

time scale
Time Scale
  • 1989 crucial – world going through great changes
  • “velvet revolution” in Eastern Europe – communism dead
  • 5 December 1989 Pravda admitting Cold War over
time scale15
Time Scale
  • Redemocratization in Latin America – Chile/Argentina/Brazil
  • 1991 1st Gulf War – “new world order”
  • 1991 end of the Soviet Union
Vast changes taking place that all appear to agree with Fukuyama’s ideas
  • End of any war time of great optimism & 1989 with end of the Cold War no different
  • Realism appears to be dead – too much interdependence
is the end of history correct
Is the “End of History” correct?
  • Tomorrow – clash of civilizations
  • Kosovo/Iraq etc
  • 2002 Fukuyama wrote “Posthuman Future: Consequence of the Biotechnological Revolution” – some regulation needed
  • 1989 the “End of History”
  • End of evolutionary process of capitalism versus collectivism – capitalism won
  • The world will become more peaceful

(1) democracies do not fight each other

(2) interdependence – globalisation

(3) International Organisations

  • Triumphalism at end of the Cold War
  • Great hope for a “new world order”
  • Events at time seem to suggest Fukuyama correct
  • Events since mid 1990s may suggest otherwise
  • 2002 Fukuyama suggesting perhaps too hasty