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  1. Introductory activity: • Please visit my teacher page. • Download and save a copy of the Andrew Jackson Webquest. • Add to Assignment Folder. • Complete before end of class. • No exceptions!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  2. Chapter 8 The Spirit of Reform Section 1 The Age of Jackson

  3. Do Now Activity • How do you spoil someone? What does spoil mean? • Name one person that you would spoil and why?

  4. Objectives: • Identify key ideas, events and legislative action taken before and during Andrew Jackson’s presidential administration.

  5. I. A New Era in Politics • Beginning in the early 1800s & continuing through Andrew Jackson’s presidency, the nation’s political system became more democratic.

  6. A. Expansion of Voting Rights • Many states lowered or eliminated property ownership as a voting qualification

  7. Andrew Jackson “Old hickory”

  8. B. Andrew Jackson’s Presidency • Became the 1st man to rise from childhood poverty to the office of President. • Was elected because many felt he represented the common man.

  9. B. Continued • His presidency became known as the Jacksonian Democracy. • 1) Spoils System – Jackson openly allowed his friends and supporters to have high positions

  10. C. Nullification Crisis • 1) The Issue • South Carolina’s economy weakened due to the nation’s tariffs • S. C. purchased many goods from England tariffs made them extremely expensive.

  11. C. Continued • 2) Tariff of Abominations • Raised tariffs again • Afterwards S. C. threatened to secede (withdraw) from the Union

  12. C. Continued • 3) John C. Calhoun • Vice President of U.S. & South Carolinian • Proposed nullification rather than support secession.

  13. C. Continued • 4) Nullification • States have the right to declare a federal law null or not valid/void. • Jackson never debated this issue but he was prepared to call federal troops if S.C. chose to secede.

  14. II. Policies Toward Native Americans

  15. A. Indian Removal Act (1830) • Pushed through Congress by Andrew Jackson. • Provided money for relocating Native Americans.

  16. B. Worcester v. Georgia • Chief Justice John Marshall ordered state officials to honor Cherokee property rights • Jackson refused to obey court orders and sent federal troops to forcibly remove the Cherokee.

  17. C. Trail of Tears (1838-1839) • The Cherokee journey to Oklahoma (reservations) • 800 mile journey • Many natives died of disease, starvation, & exposure to the bitter cold.

  18. Trial of Tears

  19. III. New Party Emerges • Andrew Jackson ‘s forceful style caused many supporters to sway away.

  20. A. Whig Party • Party of Jackson opposers • Wanted a larger federal government, centralized economy, and commercial and industrial development.

  21. Whig Party

  22. V. Presidencies Continued • 8th President - Martin Van Buren (1836) • 9th President – William Harrison • Served the shortest term of any American president (32 days)

  23. V. continued • 10th president – John Tyler (was Harrison’s vice president) Succeeded to the presidency. • Presidents Continued

  24. Presidents 8, 9 & 10

  25. Section 2 Notes A Changing Culture

  26. I. A New Wave of Immigrants • Many came to America in search of a better way of life, economic opportunity.

  27. A. Reasons for Coming • To escape political turmoil, violence, poverty, and starvation

  28. B. Immigrant Groups • Most immigrants btwn 1815 – 1860 came from Ireland (Irish). • Left because of a famine in 1845 • Germans were the second largest immigrant group during this period

  29. C. Nativism • Many immigrants faced nativists • Nativism • Hostility toward foreigners

  30. II. Religious Revival • New forms of worship become prominent

  31. A. Second Great Awakening • Began in Kentucky among frontier farmers • Basic message: individuals must readmit God and Christ into their daily lives. • Preached that all people could

  32. A. Continued • attain grace through faith. • Held camp meetings

  33. B. New Religious Groups Form • 1) Unitarians – reject the idea that Jesus was the son of God but that he was a great teacher. God is a unity and not a trinity.

  34. B. Continued • 2) Universalists – believe in the universal salvation of souls. Reject the idea of hell & believe God intends to save everyone.

  35. B. Continued • Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormon) – Believed they were to build a kingdom on Earth to receive God. • Started by Joseph Smith and later led by Brigham Young

  36. B. Continued • Settled in Utah. • Practiced polygamy (marriage to more than one wife)

  37. Literary Renaissance • Romanticism – Feeling over reason • Transcendentalism – transcend or overcome the limits of the mind

  38. A. American Writers Emerge • 1) Ralph Waldo Emerson – influential transcendentalist , essayist and poet with eloquent speech & poetic language • 2) Henry David Thoreau – Writer, philosopher and naturalist

  39. A. Continued • 3) Walt Whitman – poet who emphasized the great worth of each individual; loved nature, the common people • 4) Nathaniel Hawthorne – novelist who wrote about sin & punishment , The Scarlet Letter

  40. A. Continued • 5) Washington Irvin – First American writer to gain international fame. Wrote short stories, “Rip Van Winkle” and “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow”

  41. A. Continued • 6) Edgar Allen Poe – Poet, short story master. Wrote mysterious literature, “The Raven” – famous poem • 7) James Fenimore Cooper – novelist who became the 1st great

  42. A. continued • American writer. Romanticized Native Americans, The Last of the Mohicans • 8) Emily Dickinson – lived in seclusion while writing; wrote about love, death and immorality

  43. A. continued • 9) Herman Melville – based his novels on his experiences in the U.S. Navy, Moby Dick, dedicated to his friend Nathaniel Hawthorne

  44. IV. Utopian Communities

  45. A. Utopia • Ideal society • Cooperative living

  46. B. Utopian Communities • Shakers, Amish, Mennonites and Quakersuakers • Started Utopian communities to have a better way of life.