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Spanish Inquisition

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  1. Spanish Inquisition

  2. Islamic Invasions • 711 – Islam’s invade Iberian Peninsula • Known as the Moors. • The Reconquest Begins in Spain • 732 AD Battle of Tours • Al Andalus

  3. Cathars – Southern Gaul (2 gods) Purgatory is formed Selling of Indulgences Medieval Inquisition 10th Century

  4. Conversions • A Jew that converts to Christianity was known as a Converso • A Moor who converts to Christianity was known as a Morisco

  5. Jews, Moors & Christians • Jews protected by king • Tax Farmers • Loans Moriscos live away from Christians (mainly in the South in Grenada) Christians dominate Spain (Laws) Convivencia

  6. Pogroms of 1391 Fernan Martinez Mass Conversions to Christianity (20,000 Jews) Jews become a race and no longer just a religion

  7. Limpieza de Sangre (Blood Purity) • Before the Pogroms of 1391, Jew is part of a religion • Conversions mean they are Christians and equal… • Old vs. New Christians

  8. Blood Libel Mid 1400s • Propaganda against Jews • Stories told of Jews stealing Christian babies and sacrificing them at night. • Very effective (Fear travels through all Christians) • La Guardia Trial

  9. Unification of Spain • Spanish Civil War (Isabella vs. Juana) 1474-79 • Isabella marries the Prince of Aragon Ferdinand V • Castile and Aragon are now united and Spain is United

  10. Torquemada • 1483 becomes Grand Inquisitor of both Castile and Aragon (this is the only organization that Castile and Aragon have in common) • Very powerful, austere stern man and very Anti-Semitic. Helps to push the expulsion of the Jews. • Confessor to Isabella

  11. The Spanish Inquisition • Pope Sixtus IV signs the Papal Bull in 1478, which gives Spain the right to start the Inquisition. • Holy Office- Organization of the Inquisitors. • Heresy – “Wrong Thinking” • First few years, inactive until the La Guardia Trial in 1491. • 1478-1530 Most active period of the Inquisition

  12. Heresy • Not Eating Pork • Using Olive Oil • Reading Prohibited Books • Practicing Judaism

  13. How did the Inquisition Work • Edict of Grace (7days – 30days) • Denunciation • Reconciliation

  14. Why did the Inquisition Start (3 theories) • Money Money Money – Confiscation of goods. • Racism – Christians were blaming Jews for killing Jesus Christ. • Religion – Some believed they really had to convert to Catholicism.

  15. 1492 • Invasion of Grenada (Spain is completely unified) • Expulsion of the Jews

  16. Makeup of the Inquisition • Suprema (1488) – 6 members that rules over the Inquisition • Tribunals – makeshift courtrooms • Familiars – Spies • Finances – confiscations, fines, penances, dispensation.

  17. Privileges of Member to the Inquisition • A. Inspection • B. Censor Literature – Index of Prohibited Books • C. Immunity from other Jurisdictions • D. Tax Exemption • E. No Quartering of Troops

  18. The Trial A. Lawyers – Defense lawyers emerge B. Witnesses – could testify C. Enemies – Name your enemies

  19. Torture • Toca – Water Torture • Potro – The Rack • Garrucha – Hung by ceiling

  20. Autos de Fé • Act of Faith • Sanbenito • Burned In Effigy

  21. Moriscos & Witchcraze • April 4 , 1609 Expulsion of the Moriscos • Led to Economic Problems Over 110,000 witches were killed in Europe. Less than 100 killed in Spain

  22. The End of the Inquisition • The French Revolution of 1789 would cause the Inquisition to disband. • After the Revolution, a new government arose in Spain “Cortes de Cadiz” and they chose not to include the Inquisition in the new constitution.