Islamic Invasions • 711 – Islam’s invade Iberian Peninsula • Known as the Moors. • The Reconquest Begins in Spain • 732 AD Battle of Tours • Al Andalus
Cathars – Southern Gaul (2 gods) Purgatory is formed Selling of Indulgences Medieval Inquisition 10th Century
Conversions • A Jew that converts to Christianity was known as a Converso • A Moor who converts to Christianity was known as a Morisco
Jews, Moors & Christians • Jews protected by king • Tax Farmers • Loans Moriscos live away from Christians (mainly in the South in Grenada) Christians dominate Spain (Laws) Convivencia
Pogroms of 1391 Fernan Martinez Mass Conversions to Christianity (20,000 Jews) Jews become a race and no longer just a religion
Limpieza de Sangre (Blood Purity) • Before the Pogroms of 1391, Jew is part of a religion • Conversions mean they are Christians and equal… • Old vs. New Christians
Blood Libel Mid 1400s • Propaganda against Jews • Stories told of Jews stealing Christian babies and sacrificing them at night. • Very effective (Fear travels through all Christians) • La Guardia Trial
Unification of Spain • Spanish Civil War (Isabella vs. Juana) 1474-79 • Isabella marries the Prince of Aragon Ferdinand V • Castile and Aragon are now united and Spain is United
Torquemada • 1483 becomes Grand Inquisitor of both Castile and Aragon (this is the only organization that Castile and Aragon have in common) • Very powerful, austere stern man and very Anti-Semitic. Helps to push the expulsion of the Jews. • Confessor to Isabella
The Spanish Inquisition • Pope Sixtus IV signs the Papal Bull in 1478, which gives Spain the right to start the Inquisition. • Holy Office- Organization of the Inquisitors. • Heresy – “Wrong Thinking” • First few years, inactive until the La Guardia Trial in 1491. • 1478-1530 Most active period of the Inquisition
Heresy • Not Eating Pork • Using Olive Oil • Reading Prohibited Books • Practicing Judaism
How did the Inquisition Work • Edict of Grace (7days – 30days) • Denunciation • Reconciliation
Why did the Inquisition Start (3 theories) • Money Money Money – Confiscation of goods. • Racism – Christians were blaming Jews for killing Jesus Christ. • Religion – Some believed they really had to convert to Catholicism.
1492 • Invasion of Grenada (Spain is completely unified) • Expulsion of the Jews
Makeup of the Inquisition • Suprema (1488) – 6 members that rules over the Inquisition • Tribunals – makeshift courtrooms • Familiars – Spies • Finances – confiscations, fines, penances, dispensation.
Privileges of Member to the Inquisition • A. Inspection • B. Censor Literature – Index of Prohibited Books • C. Immunity from other Jurisdictions • D. Tax Exemption • E. No Quartering of Troops
The Trial A. Lawyers – Defense lawyers emerge B. Witnesses – could testify C. Enemies – Name your enemies
Torture • Toca – Water Torture • Potro – The Rack • Garrucha – Hung by ceiling
Autos de Fé • Act of Faith • Sanbenito • Burned In Effigy
Moriscos & Witchcraze • April 4 , 1609 Expulsion of the Moriscos • Led to Economic Problems Over 110,000 witches were killed in Europe. Less than 100 killed in Spain
The End of the Inquisition • The French Revolution of 1789 would cause the Inquisition to disband. • After the Revolution, a new government arose in Spain “Cortes de Cadiz” and they chose not to include the Inquisition in the new constitution.