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Software Architecture Agenda Why architect? What is architecture? What does an architect do? What principles guide the process of architecting? What's involved in creating architectural documents? Why Architect? to build a better dog house to handle large, complex tasks

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agenda
Agenda
  • Why architect?
  • What is architecture?
  • What does an architect do?
  • What principles guide the process of architecting?
  • What's involved in creating architectural documents?
why architect
Why Architect?
  • to build a better dog house
  • to handle large, complex tasks
      • to coordinate work
      • to communicate ideas and design
      • to validate against goals
      • to resolve conflicting goals
      • to reduce costs
      • to improve delivery times
  • products or product lines
architecture definitions
Architecture: Definitions
  • "the art or science of building"
  • "formation or construction as or as if as the result of conscious act"
  • "a unifying or coherent form or structure"
  • "a method or style of building"
  • "the manner in which the components of a computer or computer system are organized and integrated"
      • Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Tenth Edition
develop definitions
Develop: Definitions
  • "to set forth or make clear by degrees or in detail"
  • "to work out the possibilities of"
  • "to make available or usable"
  • "to cause to unfold gradually"
  • "to expand by a process of growth"
  • "to come into being gradually"
      • Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Tenth Edition
what is architecture
What is Architecture?
  • Form
    • structure, organization
  • Function
    • behavior, use
  • Style
    • appearance, elegance, way of doing things (tao)
examples of architecture
Examples of Architecture

Score

Picture

Section

Class

Layout

influences on architecture
Influences on Architecture
  • Environment/Context
    • Relationship to surroundings, orientation, and climate
  • History
    • Changes in technology, materials, and ideals of beauty over time
  • Technology
    • Current know-how
uses of architecture
Uses of Architecture
  • Means of communicating design information amongst stakeholders
  • Embodiment of early design decisions
  • Reusable entity
what does an architect do
What Does an Architect Do?
  • leads
    • champions, coordinates, interfaces, aligns with business strategies
  • provides vision
  • translates
  • designs
  • criticizes
  • consults
guiding principles
Guiding Principles
  • integrity
  • simplicity
  • loose coupling/separation of concerns
  • high cohesion
  • abstraction
  • postponement of decisions
creating architectural documents
Creating Architectural Documents
  • Source
      • "Architecture-Based Development", Len Bass & Rick Kazman, Carnegie Mellon University, 1999
  • Iterative process, involving both construction and validation
  • Six-step process
architectural document creation process summary
Architectural Document Creation Process Summary
  • Elicit architectural requirements
  • Design the architecture
  • Document the architecture
  • Analyze the architecture
  • Realize the architecture
  • Maintain the architecture
elicit architectural requirements
Elicit Architectural Requirements
  • functional requirements
  • non-functional requirements or qualities
    • such as:
      • modifiability
      • performance
      • security
      • reliability
    • includes priorities, relative importance, etc.
design the architecture
Design the Architecture
  • make design decisions based on:
      • knowledge of architectural styles
      • design patterns
      • use of of particular tools
  • reason about decisions by
      • considering architectural structures* and views
  • validate the design by
      • determining if scenarios are achievable
architectural structures
Architectural Structures
  • components, connectors, and properties
  • Based on: Architectural Blueprints -- The “4+1” View Model of Software Architecture, P. Kruchten, IEEE Software V12N6, 1995
  • view: perspective; part of or combination of parts of structures
    • functional structure/logical view
    • concurrency structure/process view
    • physical structure/physical view
    • code structure/development view
    • developmental structure (not in Kruchten)
    • Kruchten includes “scenarios”
functional structure
Functional Structure
  • decomposition of functionality
    • system’s services to clients
    • identification of common mechanisms and design elements
  • identification of connections
  • represented in UML by class diagrams
concurrency structure
Concurrency Structure
  • processes, threads, distribution, messages
  • some non-functional requirements handled
    • performance, availability, security, reliability
  • how functionality maps to processes/threads
    • major tasks use inter-process communication (IPC)
      • no assumptions about collocation
    • minor tasks may use shared memory
  • can be used to estimate message flows and loads
physical structure
Physical Structure
  • mapping software to hardware
  • primarily non-functional requirements
    • e.g., availability, reliability (fault tolerance), performance (throughput), scalability
  • several different configurations possible
code structure
Code Structure
  • key code abstractions (e.g., packages, classes)
  • addresses:
      • software reuse, portability
      • software management (work allocation, monitoring, etc.)
      • software development issues
  • software module organization
      • often, layered subsystem
scenarios
Scenarios
  • walk-through scripts
      • sequences of interactions among objects and among processes
  • instances of use cases (what a system does from the standpoint of an external observer)
  • intentionally redundant with other views:
      • to help discover architectural elements
      • to validate and illustrate architecture
document the architecture
Document the Architecture
  • Key characteristics:
    • complete and navigable
    • includes infrastructure
    • enough use cases to help understand how system will implement functionality
    • includes constraints on communications, resource management, time management, etc.
    • publicly available to everyone concerned
analyze the architecture
Analyze the Architecture
  • Review by concerned parties
  • Intent is to:
    • detect problems early
    • improve the architecture
realize the architecture
Realize the Architecture
  • Turn the architecture into code
maintain the architecture
Maintain the Architecture
  • Keep the architecture on track over time