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Metabolic Pathways and Energy Production. Metabolism and ATP Energy Important Coenzymes Glycolysis. Metabolism. All the chemical reactions that occur in the cells of our bodies. Catabolic reactions Break down large molecules Provide energy for ATP Anabolic reactions

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metabolic pathways and energy production
Metabolic Pathways and Energy Production

Metabolism and ATP Energy

Important Coenzymes

Glycolysis

metabolism
Metabolism

All the chemical reactions that occur in the cells of our bodies.

Catabolic reactions

  • Break down large molecules
  • Provide energy for ATP

Anabolic reactions

  • Use small molecules to build large ones
  • Require energy

catabolic

anabolic

cell structure
Cell Structure

Typical animal cell

  • Nucleus
  • Chromosomes in the nucleus contain genetic material
  • Cytoplasm is material between nucleus and cell membrane
  • Mitochondria are where energy-producing reactions occur
slide4
ATP
  • Energy is released as food is oxidized
  • Used to form ATP from ADP and Pi

ADP + Pi + Energy ATP

  • In cells, energy is provided by the hydrolysis of ATP

ATP ADP + Pi + Energy

digestion of foods
Digestion of Foods

Digestion is the first step of catabolism

  • Carbohydratesglucose, fructose, galactose
  • Proteins amino acids
  • Lipids glycerol

fatty acids

coenzymes
Coenzymes
  • Substances that connect metabolic pathways
  • In reduction, coenzymes accept H atoms
  • In oxidation, coenzymes remove H atoms

FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide)

FAD+ -CH2-CH2- FADH2 + -CH=CH-

NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)

NAD++ -CH-OH NADH + H+ + -C=O

glycolysis oxidation of glucose
Glycolysis: Oxidation of Glucose

2ATP

2 NAD+

2ADP 2NADH + 2H+

4 ADP

4 ATP

Glucose

two Glyceraldehyde-3-PO4

two Pyruvate

glycolysis oxidation of glucose11
Glycolysis: Oxidation of Glucose

Glycolysis generates

2 ATP molecules and 2 NADH + 2 H+

Two ATP used in adding phosphate groups to glucose and fructose-6-phosphate (- 2 ATP)

Four ATP generated in direct transfer to ADP by two 3-C molecules (+ 4 ATP)

Glucose + 2 ADP + 2 Pi + 2 NAD+

2pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H+

pathways for pyruvate
Pathways for Pyruvate

Aerobic conditions

O

||

CH3–C –COO- + NAD+ + CoA

pyruvate

O

||

CH3–C –CoA + CO2 + NADH + H+

acetyl CoA

pathways for pyruvate13
Pathways for Pyruvate

Anaerobic conditions (No O2 available)

Reduce to lactate to replenish NAD+ for glycolysis

O OH

|| |

CH3–C –COO- + NADH + H+ CH3–CH –COO- + NAD+

pyruvate lactate

enzyme: lactate dehydrogenase

lactate in muscles
Lactate in Muscles
  • Strenuous exercise leads to anaerobic conditions
  • Oxygen in muscles is depleted
  • Lactate builds up as glycolysis continues
  • Muscles tire and become painful
  • Breathing rate increases
  • Rest repays oxygen debt
  • Lactate re-forms pyruvate in liver
learning check m1
Learning Check M1

Match the following with the terms below:

(1) Catabolic reactions (2) Coenzymes

(3) Glycolysis (4) Lactate

A. Produced during anaerobic conditions

B. Reactions that convert glucose to pyruvate

C. Metabolic reactions that break down large molecules to smaller molecules + energy

D. Substances that remove or add H atoms in oxidation and reduction reactions

solution m1
Solution M1

Match the following with the terms below:

(1) Catabolic reactions (2) Coenzymes

  • Glycolysis (4) Lactate

A. 4 Produced during anaerobic conditions

B. 3 Reactions that convert glucose to pyruvate

C. 1 Metabolic reactions that break down large

molecules to smaller molecules + energy

D. 2 Substances that remove or add H atoms in

oxidation and reduction reactions