Metabolic pathways and energy production
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Metabolic Pathways and Energy Production. Metabolism and ATP Energy Important Coenzymes Glycolysis. Metabolism. All the chemical reactions that occur in the cells of our bodies. Catabolic reactions Break down large molecules Provide energy for ATP Anabolic reactions

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Metabolic Pathways and Energy Production

Metabolism and ATP Energy

Important Coenzymes

Glycolysis


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Metabolism

All the chemical reactions that occur in the cells of our bodies.

Catabolic reactions

  • Break down large molecules

  • Provide energy for ATP

    Anabolic reactions

  • Use small molecules to build large ones

  • Require energy

catabolic

anabolic


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Cell Structure

Typical animal cell

  • Nucleus

  • Chromosomes in the nucleus contain genetic material

  • Cytoplasm is material between nucleus and cell membrane

  • Mitochondria are where energy-producing reactions occur


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ATP

  • Energy is released as food is oxidized

  • Used to form ATP from ADP and Pi

    ADP + Pi + Energy ATP

  • In cells, energy is provided by the hydrolysis of ATP

    ATP ADP + Pi + Energy



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Digestion of Foods

Digestion is the first step of catabolism

  • Carbohydratesglucose, fructose, galactose

  • Proteins amino acids

  • Lipids glycerol

    fatty acids


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Coenzymes

  • Substances that connect metabolic pathways

  • In reduction, coenzymes accept H atoms

  • In oxidation, coenzymes remove H atoms

    FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide)

    FAD+ -CH2-CH2- FADH2 + -CH=CH-

    NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)

    NAD++ -CH-OH NADH + H+ + -C=O


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Glycolysis: Oxidation of Glucose

2ATP

2 NAD+

2ADP 2NADH + 2H+

4 ADP

4 ATP

Glucose

two Glyceraldehyde-3-PO4

two Pyruvate



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Glycolysis: Oxidation of Glucose

2 NAD+ 2 NADH + 2 H+


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Glycolysis: Oxidation of Glucose

Glycolysis generates

2 ATP molecules and 2 NADH + 2 H+

Two ATP used in adding phosphate groups to glucose and fructose-6-phosphate (- 2 ATP)

Four ATP generated in direct transfer to ADP by two 3-C molecules (+ 4 ATP)

Glucose + 2 ADP + 2 Pi + 2 NAD+

2pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H+


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Pathways for Pyruvate

Aerobic conditions

O

||

CH3–C –COO- + NAD+ + CoA

pyruvate

O

||

CH3–C –CoA + CO2 + NADH + H+

acetyl CoA


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Pathways for Pyruvate

Anaerobic conditions (No O2 available)

Reduce to lactate to replenish NAD+ for glycolysis

O OH

|| |

CH3–C –COO- + NADH + H+ CH3–CH –COO- + NAD+

pyruvate lactate

enzyme: lactate dehydrogenase


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Lactate in Muscles

  • Strenuous exercise leads to anaerobic conditions

  • Oxygen in muscles is depleted

  • Lactate builds up as glycolysis continues

  • Muscles tire and become painful

  • Breathing rate increases

  • Rest repays oxygen debt

  • Lactate re-forms pyruvate in liver


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Learning Check M1

Match the following with the terms below:

(1) Catabolic reactions (2) Coenzymes

(3) Glycolysis (4) Lactate

A. Produced during anaerobic conditions

B. Reactions that convert glucose to pyruvate

C. Metabolic reactions that break down large molecules to smaller molecules + energy

D. Substances that remove or add H atoms in oxidation and reduction reactions


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Solution M1

Match the following with the terms below:

(1) Catabolic reactions (2) Coenzymes

  • Glycolysis (4) Lactate

    A. 4 Produced during anaerobic conditions

    B. 3 Reactions that convert glucose to pyruvate

    C. 1 Metabolic reactions that break down large

    molecules to smaller molecules + energy

    D. 2 Substances that remove or add H atoms in

    oxidation and reduction reactions


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