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Includes transport of : 1. oxygen 2. carbon dioxide 3 nutrients 4. water 5. ions 6. hormones 7. antibodies PowerPoint Presentation
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Functions of Human Circulatory System Chp. 8. Includes transport of : 1. oxygen 2. carbon dioxide 3 nutrients 4. water 5. ions 6. hormones 7. antibodies 8. metabolic wastes. The Human Circulatory System. 4 chambered heart Arteries Capillaries Veins. Arteries.

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slide1

Functions of Human Circulatory System

Chp. 8

Includes transport of:

1. oxygen

2. carbon dioxide

3 nutrients

4. water

5. ions

6. hormones

7. antibodies

8. metabolic wastes

the human circulatory system
The Human Circulatory System
  • 4 chambered heart
  • Arteries
  • Capillaries
  • Veins
arteries
Arteries
  • muscular vessels carrying blood away from heart
  • carry oxygenated blood
    • Exception- pulmonary artery (to lungs)
capillaries
Capillaries
  • thin walled (one cell layer) vessels
  • arise from arterioles (tiny arteries)
  • form capillary beds
  • all exchange between blood & cells occurs here
veins
Veins
  • Venules receive blood from the capillaries
  • Low oxygenated blood transferred to veins
  • Veins carry low O2 blood to heart
    • Exception- pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood
  • Thin walled & flattened
  • Nearer to body surface than arteries
circulation through human heart
Circulation Through Human Heart

Body blood enters RIGHT SIDE of HEART

Right atrium ----> right ventricle ----> Pulmonary artery

----> alveoli inlungs----> oxygenated blood --> Pulmonary

Veins ---->

Left Atrium. ----> Left Ventricle ----> blood leaves through

Aorta (first artery) ---> flows to body

control of the heart
Control of the Heart
  • Extrinsic (outside)
  • Intrinsic (within)
extrinsic outside control of heart beat
Extrinsic (outside) control of heart beat
  • autonomic nervous system
  • adrenal hormone epinephrine
  • heart itself can secrete regulatory hormones when changes in blood pressure in the atria are detected.
intrinsic within control
Intrinsic (within) control
  • Origin of heart beat
    • Sinoatrial (SA) node ( pacemaker)
  • May be influenced by autonomic nervous system
human circulatory system circuits
Human Circulatory System Circuits
  • Hepatic Portal Circuit
  • Renal Circuit
  • Cardiac Circuit
  • Systemic Circuit
capillaries13
Capillaries
  • composed of interlocking cells
  • one cell thick
  • nutrients, ions, water, & oxygen diffuse here
  • Blood moves from capillary to a venule, picks up:
    • ions
    • Water
    • carbon dioxide
    • metabolic wastes
    • nutrients from intestine

Materials leave capillaries by three mechanisms:

1. Diffusion

2. Hydrostatic pressure

3. Pinocytosis

veins14
Veins
  • Entering blood volume equals that leaving arteries
  • blood pressure is much lower than in arteries
movement through veins assisted by
Movement through veins assisted by:
  • one way flap-like valves allow blood to move in one direction (toward heart)
  • some smooth muscle around larger veins that contracts and moves blood
  • limb and breathing movements literally massages veins and squeezes blood along
lymphatic system
Lymphatic System
  • Function: maintain blood volume; also functions in immune system
  • Structure
    • Blind-ended capillaries
    • Lymphatic vessels
    • Lymph
the heart
The Heart

Figure 8.8

the heart20
The Heart
  • Structure
  • Layers; epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
  • Chambers: two atrias, two ventricles
  • Valves
    • Two atrioventricular valves: tricuspid and bicuspid (mitral)
    • Two semilunar valves: pulmonary and aortic
pulmonary circuit oxygenation of blood
Pulmonary Circuit: Oxygenation of Blood
  • Deoxygenated blood through the vena cava to the right atrium
  • Deoxygenated blood through the right atrioventricular valve to the right ventricle
  • Deoxygenated blood through the pulmonary semilunar valve to the pulmonary trunk and the lungs
  • Oxygenated blood through the pulmonary veins to the left atrium
  • Oxygenated blood through the left atrioventricular valve to the left ventricle
systemic circuit delivery of oxygenated blood to tissues and return of blood to the heart
Systemic Circuit: Delivery of Oxygenated Blood to Tissues and Return of Blood to the Heart
  • Oxygenated blood through the aortic semilunar valve to the aorta
  • Oxygenated blood through branching arteries and arterioles to the tissues
  • Oxygenated blood through the arterioles to capillaries
  • Deoxygenated blood from capillaries into venules and veins
  • Ultimately to the vena cava and into the right atrium
cardiac cycle
Cardiac Cycle

Figure 8.12

heart sounds and heart valves
Heart Sounds and Heart Valves
  • Lub-dub
  • Heart murmurs
cardiac conduction system coordinates contraction
Cardiac Conduction System Coordinates Contraction
  • SA node: cardiac pacemaker
  • AV node: relay impulse
  • AV bundle and Purkinje fibers: carry impulse to ventricles

Figure 8.14

electrocardiograms ekg ecg
Electrocardiograms (EKG/ECG)
  • Three formations
    • P wave: impulse across atria
    • QRS complex: spread of impulse down septum, around ventricles in Purkinje fibers
    • T wave: end of electrical activity in ventricles
  • Arrythmias, ventricular fibrillation
blood pressure
Blood Pressure
  • Definitions: “normal”
    • Systolic pressure
    • Diastolic pressure
  • Measurement: sphygmomanometer
blood pressure29
Blood Pressure
  • Hypertension: high blood pressure
    • Definition
    • The silent killer
    • Risk factors
  • Hypertension: blood pressure too low
    • Clinical signs: dizziness, fainting
    • Causes: orthostatic, severe burns, blood loss
regulation of the cardiovascular system baroreceptors
Regulation of the Cardiovascular System: Baroreceptors
  • Baroreceptors: pressure receptors in aorta andcarotid arteries
  • Steps in mechanism
    • Blood pressure rises, vessels stretched
    • Signals sent to brain in the cardiovascular center
    • Heart signaled to lower heart rate and force of contraction
    • Arterioles vasodilate, increasing blood flow to tissues
    • Combined effect lowers blood pressure
regulation of the cardiovascular system nervous and endocrine factors
Regulation of the Cardiovascular System: Nervous and Endocrine Factors
  • Medulla oblongata signals
    • Sympathetic nerves: constrict blood vessels, raising blood pressure
    • Parasympathetic nerves: dilate blood vessels, lowering blood pressure
  • Hormones: epinephrine (adrenaline)
  • Local requirements dictate local blood flow
cardiovascular disorders
Cardiovascular Disorders
  • Angina pectoris: A warning
  • Myocardial infarction/heart attack: permanent cardiac damage
  • Congestive heart failure: decrease in pumping efficiency
  • Embolism: blockage of blood vessels
  • Stroke: impaired blood flow to the brain
reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease
Reducing the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Smoking: Don’t
  • Blood lipids: monitor cholesterol levels
  • Exercise: regular and moderate
  • Blood pressure: treat hypertension
  • Weight: being overweight increases risk of heart attack and stroke
  • Control of Diabetes Mellitus: early diagnosis and treatment delays onset of related problems
  • Stress: avoid chronic stress
cardiac anatomy quiz
Cardiac Anatomy Quiz

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Test Yourself, page 172

blood
Blood
  • Connective tissue
    • plasma matrix + 3 types cells

Plasma = 90% water + 10% plasma solids.

Solids include:

urea

amino acids

glucose

hormones

ions

fats

proteins

the 3 major blood proteins
The 3 Major Blood Proteins

albumins - large proteins that bind impurities &

some toxins, aid in transport of

hormones, fatty acids and ions, help

maintain osmotic balance.

globins - include antibodies (immunoglobins)

fibrinogen - important in blood clotting

blood cells
Blood Cells
  • Erythrocytes
  • Leukocytes
  • Platelets
erythrocytes red blood cells
Erythrocytes (red blood cells)
  • small, disk-like shape
  • no nucleus
  • cannot reproduce
  • last 4 months then rupture
  • produced by red bone marrow
  • contain hemoglobin
  • carry oxygen
leukocytes white blood cells
Leukocytes (white blood cells)
  • Nucleus present
  • Active in immune system
    • most are neutrophils that engulf microorganisms
    • Basophils
    • Eosinophils
    • lymphocytes
platelets thrombocytes
Platelets (thrombocytes)
  • tiny
  • numerous
  • cell fragments
  • aid blood clotting
three fluid regions of body
Three Fluid Regions Of Body

1) fluid of blood and lymph

2) interstitial fluid - watery fluid between and among cells

3) intracellular fluid