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Hospital Water: Is it a Source for Nosocomial Infections?. Copyright 2002, Robert Garcia, BS, MMT(ASCP), CIC. Causative Agent. Reservoir. Susceptible host. Portal of exit. Portal of entry. Mode of Transmission. The Chain of Infection. Components of the Infectious Disease Process.
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Is it a Source for Nosocomial Infections?
Robert Garcia, BS, MMT(ASCP), CIC
Portal of exit
Portal of entry
Mode of Transmission
The Chain of Infection.
Components of the Infectious Disease Process.
“…In such settings, hospital water may have contaminated environmental surfaces (eg, sinks, drains, and whirlpool baths), medical equipment (eg, by rinsing tube feed bags, endoscopes, respiratory equipment, etc., with tap water), or health care providers, leading ultimately to patient exposure.”
Source: Stone P. et al, Outcomes of ICU Working Conditions, Nov 2001
JCAHO Expert Panel Report
“Insufficient staffing not only adversely impacts health care quality and patient safety, it also compromises the safety of nurses themselves”
Source: Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, August 2002
Friers, S.A. Ostomy, Wound Management June 2001
Bryant R. A. Ostomy, Wound Management June 2001
Wysocki A. Acute and Chronic Wounds 2nd Edition 2000
Source: Thomas MD, D., Clinical Journal of Medicine, Cleveland
1. Meehan M. Multisite pressure ulcer prevalence survey. Decubitus 1990;3:4-14.
2. Whittington K, Patrick M, Roberts JL. A national study of pressure ulcer prevalence and incidence in acute care hospitals. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2000;27:209-15.
Allman RM, Goode PS, Burst N, et al. Pressure ulcers, hospital complications, and disease severity: Impact on hospital costs and length of stay. Adv Wd Care 1999;12:23-30.
Source: Shannon R et al., Patient Bath Water as a Source of Nosocomial Microbiological Contamination: An intervention Study using Chlorhexidine. J Healthcare Safety Infect Control, 1999;3:180-84.
Better Science and Patient Safety
What’s the Real Cost of Basin Bathing?
Energy, Water & Sewer
Source: Total Delivered Cost Analysis Database from U.S. hospitals 1997 - 2002, Sage marketing data on file.
$1.10 to $1.90
Basin Bath Cost
Source: Total Delivered Cost data analysis of U.S.hospitals 1997-2002
The Cost of Basinless Bathing