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    2. 2

    3. 3 Who NCHH is: Nonprofit corporation based in Columbia, Maryland Dedicated to creating healthy and safe homes for children through practical and proven steps. Over 16 yearsof experience in research, program evaluation, technical assistance, training, and outreach Supported by federal funding (HUD, CDC, EPA, DOE) and private foundation support

    4. 4 Who HSC is: The Home Safety Council (HSC) is the only national nonprofit organization solely dedicated to preventing home related injuries that result in nearly 20,000 deaths and 21 million medical visits on average each year. Through national programs, partnerships and the support of volunteers, HSC educates people of all ages to be safer in and around their homes. The Home Safety Council is a 501(c)(3) charitable organization located in Washington, DC.

    5. 5 Health problems related to housing conditions

    6. 6 Why healthy housing and not simply addressing individual housing-related health hazards?Why healthy housing and not simply addressing individual housing-related health hazards?

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    12. 12 Hazards in the home

    13. 13 Hazards in the home

    14. 14 Hazards in the home

    15. 15 7 Healthy Homes Principles

    16. 16 Health Problems Associated with Mold and Moisture Remember what we discussed from The Connection Between Health and Housing? Mold in damp indoor environments is associated with: nose and throat irritation, coughing, Wheezing Other asthma symptoms Some people can develop pneumonia if they are exposed to mold. Remember what we discussed from The Connection Between Health and Housing? Mold in damp indoor environments is associated with: nose and throat irritation, coughing, Wheezing Other asthma symptoms Some people can develop pneumonia if they are exposed to mold.

    17. 17 If there is too much moisture in a house, mold will grow. Mold produces spores, tiny specks you cant see that float through the air. Here are some places you might find mold: In bathrooms, around the shower or tub, and on the walls, ceiling, or floor In wet or damp basements and crawl spaces Around leaky bathroom and kitchen sinks Under leaking roofs On windows and walls where condensation collects In closets Under wallpaper or carpet In your air conditioner If there is too much moisture in a house, mold will grow. Mold produces spores, tiny specks you cant see that float through the air. Here are some places you might find mold: In bathrooms, around the shower or tub, and on the walls, ceiling, or floor In wet or damp basements and crawl spaces Around leaky bathroom and kitchen sinks Under leaking roofs On windows and walls where condensation collects In closets Under wallpaper or carpet In your air conditioner

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    19. 19 Keep It Dry What You Can Do Use kitchen and bathroom fans. Wipe down shower walls after baths or showers If the humidity in your house is more than 50%, turn on air conditioning. Use a dehumidifier to dry out damp areas. Throw away carpeting, cardboard boxes, insulation and anything very wet for more than two days (if you rent, check with your landlord first). Clean up mold if the area with mold is relatively small.

    20. 20 7 Healthy Homes Principles

    21. 21 Less contact with: Dust mites, mold, mice/rat/cockroaches which can trigger allergy and asthma attacks Pesticides which can cause a variety of health problems Note that some sprays or powders used to kill insects or mice can cause: skin rashes, headaches, dizziness, muscle pain stomach cramps, nausea and vomiting, and breathing difficulties. Also, note that we will cover more on lead in a later session on Keep It Contaminant Free. Note that cleaning to get rid of lead dust that can come from lead-based paint is usually just ONE thing to consider when it comes to dealing with lead-based paint. Because lead is so poisonous and can cause so many health problems, there is a lot to learn in terms of avoiding it. Less contact with: Dust mites, mold, mice/rat/cockroaches which can trigger allergy and asthma attacks Pesticides which can cause a variety of health problems Note that some sprays or powders used to kill insects or mice can cause: skin rashes, headaches, dizziness, muscle pain stomach cramps, nausea and vomiting, and breathing difficulties. Also, note that we will cover more on lead in a later session on Keep It Contaminant Free. Note that cleaning to get rid of lead dust that can come from lead-based paint is usually just ONE thing to consider when it comes to dealing with lead-based paint. Because lead is so poisonous and can cause so many health problems, there is a lot to learn in terms of avoiding it.

    22. 22 Healthy Cleaning Dont dry dust or dry sweep Vacuuming carpets: A good vacuum will have a beater bar The best type of vacuum to buy is a HEPA vacuum Be sure to vacuum very slowly (or use vacuum with dirt finder) Wet cleaning: Use elbow grease Change water frequently It is best to avoid dry dusting or sweeping this just moves the dust around rather than picking it up and getting rid of it. You should use a damp cloth for dusting. When vacuuming, it is best to use a vacuum that has a beater bar explain that this is the brush on the bottom of the vacuum that turns and beats the carpet while vacuuming. Be sure to vacuum slowly this will help to pick up more dust. If you are going to buy a vacuum cleaner, you can get more information from NCHH on what type of vacuum cleaner to buy. The most expensive vaccums are not necessarily the better ones. If possible, it is best to buy a HEPA vacuum a type of vacuum that is particularly good at filtering particles out of the air. It is often better to use wet cleaning methods than dry dusting. It is important to use good technique and elbow grease when wet cleaning. In fact it may be more important than what type of product you use. Make sure that you do not contaminate the wash water and frequently change the rinse water and cleaning rags. It is best to avoid dry dusting or sweeping this just moves the dust around rather than picking it up and getting rid of it. You should use a damp cloth for dusting. When vacuuming, it is best to use a vacuum that has a beater bar explain that this is the brush on the bottom of the vacuum that turns and beats the carpet while vacuuming. Be sure to vacuum slowly this will help to pick up more dust. If you are going to buy a vacuum cleaner, you can get more information from NCHH on what type of vacuum cleaner to buy. The most expensive vaccums are not necessarily the better ones. If possible, it is best to buy a HEPA vacuum a type of vacuum that is particularly good at filtering particles out of the air. It is often better to use wet cleaning methods than dry dusting. It is important to use good technique and elbow grease when wet cleaning. In fact it may be more important than what type of product you use. Make sure that you do not contaminate the wash water and frequently change the rinse water and cleaning rags.

    23. 23 Keep It Clean What You Can Do

    24. 24 7 Healthy Homes Principles

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    26. 26 Remember: Too much moisture can result in mold and can also provide the water that dust mites, cockroaches and mice need Tobacco smoke, cockroach and mice droppings, and mold can trigger allergy and asthma attacks Well talk more about radon later on for now remember that radon can cause lung cancer Volatile organic compounds can come from things like air fresheners and can also trigger asthma and allergy attacks Ventilation plays an important role in maintaining health. Poor ventilation can result in higher rates of respiratory irritation, common colds, influenza, pneumonia, and bronchitis. Remember: Too much moisture can result in mold and can also provide the water that dust mites, cockroaches and mice need Tobacco smoke, cockroach and mice droppings, and mold can trigger allergy and asthma attacks Well talk more about radon later on for now remember that radon can cause lung cancer Volatile organic compounds can come from things like air fresheners and can also trigger asthma and allergy attacks Ventilation plays an important role in maintaining health. Poor ventilation can result in higher rates of respiratory irritation, common colds, influenza, pneumonia, and bronchitis.

    27. 27 Things that need exhaust ventilation Bathrooms Clothes dryers Kitchen ranges Boilers, furnaces, hot water heaters Fireplaces, wood burning stoves Here is a list of rooms and appliances in a home that need exhaust ventilation. Here is a list of rooms and appliances in a home that need exhaust ventilation.

    28. 28 Keep It Ventilated What You Can Do

    29. 29 7 Healthy Homes Principles

    30. 30 Mice drip urine and leave their dander wherever they go. Cockroaches leave their poop (frass) and shed skins. All of these in a home trigger asthma attacks and may even cause asthma. The chemicals that people use to kill pests pose a risk, some more than others. Children are more vulnerable because they are closer to the floor, do not have high tolerance for toxins, and put many things in their mouths. Pregnant women also are more vulnerable to pesticides. If pesticides are necessary, leave them to the professional. By using them yourself, you could make the pest problem worse. Mice drip urine and leave their dander wherever they go. Cockroaches leave their poop (frass) and shed skins. All of these in a home trigger asthma attacks and may even cause asthma. The chemicals that people use to kill pests pose a risk, some more than others. Children are more vulnerable because they are closer to the floor, do not have high tolerance for toxins, and put many things in their mouths. Pregnant women also are more vulnerable to pesticides. If pesticides are necessary, leave them to the professional. By using them yourself, you could make the pest problem worse.

    31. 31 What is IPM? Integrated: sanitation, exclusion, and baits. Pest: Cockroaches Management: no more cockroaches! Integrated: sanitation, exclusion, and baits. Pest: Cockroaches Management: no more cockroaches!

    32. 32 Keep It Pest-Free What You Can Do

    33. 33 7 Healthy Homes Principles

    34. 34 There are many possible ways to be injured in a house. There are twelve issues illustrated in this section of a house. Safety gates help prevent falls down stairs and to keep children away from dangerous areas. Safety latches and locks for cabinets and drawers in kitchens, bathrooms, and other areas help prevent poisonings and other injuries. Door knob covers and door locks help prevent children from entering rooms and other areas with possible dangers. Use anti-scald devices for faucets and shower heads and set the water heater temperature to 120 degrees. Place smoke detectors on every level of the home and near bedrooms to alert residents to fires. Window guards and safety netting help prevent falls from windows, balconies, decks, and landings. Corner and edge bumpers help prevent injuries from falls against sharp edges of furniture and fireplaces. Outlet covers and outlet plates help prevent electrocution. Carbon monoxide (CO) alarm outside bedrooms helps prevent CO poisoning. Cut window blind cords. Use safety tassels and inner cord stops to help prevent children from strangling in blind cord loops. Door stops and door holders help prevent injuries to fingers and hands. Cordless phones make it easier to continuously watch young children, especially when they're in bathtubs, swimming pools, or other potentially dangerous areas. There are many possible ways to be injured in a house. There are twelve issues illustrated in this section of a house. Safety gates help prevent falls down stairs and to keep children away from dangerous areas. Safety latches and locks for cabinets and drawers in kitchens, bathrooms, and other areas help prevent poisonings and other injuries. Door knob covers and door locks help prevent children from entering rooms and other areas with possible dangers. Use anti-scald devices for faucets and shower heads and set the water heater temperature to 120 degrees. Place smoke detectors on every level of the home and near bedrooms to alert residents to fires. Window guards and safety netting help prevent falls from windows, balconies, decks, and landings. Corner and edge bumpers help prevent injuries from falls against sharp edges of furniture and fireplaces. Outlet covers and outlet plates help prevent electrocution. Carbon monoxide (CO) alarm outside bedrooms helps prevent CO poisoning. Cut window blind cords. Use safety tassels and inner cord stops to help prevent children from strangling in blind cord loops. Door stops and door holders help prevent injuries to fingers and hands. Cordless phones make it easier to continuously watch young children, especially when they're in bathtubs, swimming pools, or other potentially dangerous areas.

    35. 35 What are the most common causes of home injury deaths?

    36. 36 Which age groups are most at risk? Children and older adults (70 and above) tend to be the most susceptible groups for home injuries. Adults 80+ years of age are at 20 times higher risk of death due to injury (e.g. falls) than younger individuals. When the elderly do survive a fall, they take longer to recover and often do not fully recover. However, falls are leading cause of nonfatal home injury for children from birth through 14 and for older population. [4] The highest rate of injury death for 1-14 year olds is fires and burns. For infants, the highest rate of injury death is choking and suffocation. Children and older adults (70 and above) tend to be the most susceptible groups for home injuries. Adults 80+ years of age are at 20 times higher risk of death due to injury (e.g. falls) than younger individuals. When the elderly do survive a fall, they take longer to recover and often do not fully recover. However, falls are leading cause of nonfatal home injury for children from birth through 14 and for older population. [4] The highest rate of injury death for 1-14 year olds is fires and burns. For infants, the highest rate of injury death is choking and suffocation.

    37. 37 Poisoning

    38. 38 Fires and Burns

    39. 39 Loose cord for blinds Many objects can pose choking or suffocation hazards to small children. They should be kept out of reach. A dangling cord attracts the curiosity of a toddler who can become tangled and is not sure enough on his or her feet to escape. Electric shock Electrical outlets should be covered. Brightly colored outlets and covers or, worse yet, those with images of popular cartoon figures, draw children to them. Transparent, uninteresting covers are the safest. Loose cord for blinds Many objects can pose choking or suffocation hazards to small children. They should be kept out of reach. A dangling cord attracts the curiosity of a toddler who can become tangled and is not sure enough on his or her feet to escape. Electric shock Electrical outlets should be covered. Brightly colored outlets and covers or, worse yet, those with images of popular cartoon figures, draw children to them. Transparent, uninteresting covers are the safest.

    40. 40 Keep It Safe What You Can Do

    41. 41 7 Healthy Homes Principles

    42. Contaminant Buying Decisions Intentionally Bring In Tobacco Smoke Pesticides Sprays, Baits & Powders Volatile Organic Comp. Air Fresheners & Cleaning Products Glues, Sprays & Coatings Building Materials Mercury Thermostats & Fluorescent Lamps Asbestos Building Materials Meth Labs Along for the Ride Bedbugs and Mice Used Furniture & Mattresses Cockroaches Cardboard Boxes & Furniture Mice Boxes and Furniture Formaldehyde Pressed Wood Products Lead Used Building Supplies Can you really keep a home contaminant-free? Perhaps not, but you can make significant progress by evaluating carefully your buying decisions. You may be intentionally bringing in contaminants because of the function that the contaminant provides. Or the contaminant made be along for the ride. In this module, we will be focusing on those buying decisions. We have already talked about pests and pesticides in Keep It Pest-Free. We will talk about Asbestos, Lead and Mercury in the next section Keep It Maintained because we need to focus on maintenance for their biggest sources. That leaves us with Tobacco Smoke Volatile Organic Compounds Formaldehyde To discuss in this module. Can you really keep a home contaminant-free? Perhaps not, but you can make significant progress by evaluating carefully your buying decisions. You may be intentionally bringing in contaminants because of the function that the contaminant provides. Or the contaminant made be along for the ride. In this module, we will be focusing on those buying decisions. We have already talked about pests and pesticides in Keep It Pest-Free. We will talk about Asbestos, Lead and Mercury in the next section Keep It Maintained because we need to focus on maintenance for their biggest sources. That leaves us with Tobacco Smoke Volatile Organic Compounds Formaldehyde To discuss in this module.

    43. Why Avoid Tobacco smoke: Related Health Effects Increases the number of episodes and severity of symptoms for children with asthma Risk factor for new cases of asthma in children Responsible for 150,000 to 300,000 lower respiratory tract infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia - in infants and children less than 18 months of age These are some interesting statistics, from the American Lung Association, that focus on problems related to second hand smoke. [6] Second hand smoke causes an estimated 3,000 lung cancer deaths in non-smokers each year. These are some interesting statistics, from the American Lung Association, that focus on problems related to second hand smoke. [6] Second hand smoke causes an estimated 3,000 lung cancer deaths in non-smokers each year.

    44. Volatile Organic Compounds Air Fresheners Cleaning Products Sprays & Coatings Formaldehyde Carpets Vinyl Floors Drywall Hobbies Home Maintenance Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) is a broad class of chemicals that we breath inside our homes. It is tough to make broad generalizations other than to say that less exposure is better. If you want to understand whether the chemical is dangerous you need to understand the chemicals hazards much better and the exposures involved. The risk is the exposure times the hazard. The list above is a start on the more significant VOCs. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) is a broad class of chemicals that we breath inside our homes. It is tough to make broad generalizations other than to say that less exposure is better. If you want to understand whether the chemical is dangerous you need to understand the chemicals hazards much better and the exposures involved. The risk is the exposure times the hazard. The list above is a start on the more significant VOCs.

    45. Why Avoid VOCs? Potential health effects of VOCs: Eye, nose, throat irritation Headaches, nausea, coordination Liver, kidney, and brain damage Some can cause cancers Child development There are several health effects associated with VOCs. These include headaches, nausea, certain types of cancers, and damage to different systems of the body. Again, it varies with each chemical. The picture represents a neuron. Damage to neurons caused by VOCs can affect the functioning of the central nervous system.There are several health effects associated with VOCs. These include headaches, nausea, certain types of cancers, and damage to different systems of the body. Again, it varies with each chemical. The picture represents a neuron. Damage to neurons caused by VOCs can affect the functioning of the central nervous system.

    46. 46

    47. 47 7 Healthy Homes Principles

    48. Contaminant & Maintenance Legacy Toxics Lead-Based Paint Asbestos Siding Plaster Insulation Chromated Copper Arsenate Wood Mercury Thermometers & Flourescent Lamps Pesticide Residues Created or Grown Cockroaches Mice and Rats Mold Carbon Monoxide Sewer Gas And Then There is Radon In this module, we will be focusing on maintenance in general and then on contaminants not addressed earlier that are associated with maintenance problems Lead-based Paint, Asbestos and Radon. In this module, we will be focusing on maintenance in general and then on contaminants not addressed earlier that are associated with maintenance problems Lead-based Paint, Asbestos and Radon.

    49. Maintenance Solid waste Water supply Sewer system Heating/cooling/dehumidification/ humidification Cooking Ventilation Rainwater control/drainage Structural integrity Storage / Organization Proper, routine maintenance of the above items will prevent substantial moisture sources and associated health hazards.Proper, routine maintenance of the above items will prevent substantial moisture sources and associated health hazards.

    50. Lead and Lead-Based Paint These are the key sources of lead in a home. Federal EPA standards define lead-based paint hazards to include [2]: Deteriorated lead-based paint Lead in dust above certain thresholds. There are standards for lead dust on floors, window sills and window troughs. Lead in soil that exceeds certain thresholds. EPA has also set a level of lead in drinking water that is considered a hazard. Some pottery, produced in other countries can have lead in the glazes. These are the key sources of lead in a home. Federal EPA standards define lead-based paint hazards to include [2]: Deteriorated lead-based paint Lead in dust above certain thresholds. There are standards for lead dust on floors, window sills and window troughs. Lead in soil that exceeds certain thresholds. EPA has also set a level of lead in drinking water that is considered a hazard. Some pottery, produced in other countries can have lead in the glazes.

    51. Lead was added to paint to make it more durable. We therefore find lead-based paint more frequently on exterior surfaces and on windows and doors which used a more durable paint. We are most likely to find leaded paint outside in older homes. The second greatest use of leaded paint is on doors and windows inside older homes. Often windows have deteriorated paint. Windows experience moisture due to variations between inside and outside temperatures and this causes paint failure. Lead was added to paint to make it more durable. We therefore find lead-based paint more frequently on exterior surfaces and on windows and doors which used a more durable paint. We are most likely to find leaded paint outside in older homes. The second greatest use of leaded paint is on doors and windows inside older homes. Often windows have deteriorated paint. Windows experience moisture due to variations between inside and outside temperatures and this causes paint failure.

    52. Why Avoid Lead? Reduced IQ Learning disabilities Impaired hearing Reduced attention spans, behavior problems Anemia Kidney damage Damage to central nervous system Coma, convulsions, death

    53. Lead: Age of Housing Matters Of all U.S. housing stock, 40% of houses contain lead based paint because so much of the housing stock is old. Lead was banned from use in residential paint in 1978 in the United States. The lead industry began voluntarily phasing out lead in paint in the mid 1950s. The above chart shows this trend. Nearly 9 of 10 homes built before 1940 have lead-based paint somewhere in the building. [3] More than of homes built in the 1950s have some lead-based paint and the use of lead in paint declines sharply in the 1960s.Of all U.S. housing stock, 40% of houses contain lead based paint because so much of the housing stock is old. Lead was banned from use in residential paint in 1978 in the United States. The lead industry began voluntarily phasing out lead in paint in the mid 1950s. The above chart shows this trend. Nearly 9 of 10 homes built before 1940 have lead-based paint somewhere in the building. [3] More than of homes built in the 1950s have some lead-based paint and the use of lead in paint declines sharply in the 1960s.

    54. Asbestos Asbestos was used in building materials from around 1900 to 1978. It can be found in old floor tiles, siding, roofing materials, and around pipes. Some roofing and siding shingles are made of asbestos cement. Houses built between 1930 and 1950 may have asbestos as insulation. Asbestos may be present in textured paint and in patching compounds used on wall and ceiling joints. Their use was banned in 1977. Artificial ashes and embers sold for use in gas-fired fireplaces may contain asbestos. Older products such as stove-top pads may have some asbestos compounds. Walls and floors around woodburning stoves may be protected with asbestos paper, millboard, or cement sheets. Asbestos is found in some vinyl floor tiles and the backing on vinyl sheet flooring and adhesives. Hot water and steam pipes in older houses may be coated with an asbestos material or covered with an asbestos blanket or tape. Oil and coal furnaces and door gaskets may have asbestos insulation. Asbestos was used in building materials from around 1900 to 1978. It can be found in old floor tiles, siding, roofing materials, and around pipes. Some roofing and siding shingles are made of asbestos cement. Houses built between 1930 and 1950 may have asbestos as insulation. Asbestos may be present in textured paint and in patching compounds used on wall and ceiling joints. Their use was banned in 1977. Artificial ashes and embers sold for use in gas-fired fireplaces may contain asbestos. Older products such as stove-top pads may have some asbestos compounds. Walls and floors around woodburning stoves may be protected with asbestos paper, millboard, or cement sheets. Asbestos is found in some vinyl floor tiles and the backing on vinyl sheet flooring and adhesives. Hot water and steam pipes in older houses may be coated with an asbestos material or covered with an asbestos blanket or tape. Oil and coal furnaces and door gaskets may have asbestos insulation.

    55. Why avoid asbestos? Health effects: - Lung Cancer - Mesothelioma - Asbestosis Smokers are at greater risk! From studies of people who were exposed to asbestos in factories and shipyards, we know that breathing high levels of asbestos fibers can lead to an increased risk of: lung cancer: mesothelioma, a cancer of the lining of the chest and the abdominal cavity; and asbestosis, in which the lungs become scarred with fibrous tissue. The risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma increases with the number of fibers inhaled. The risk of lung cancer from inhaling asbestos fibers is also greater if you smoke. People who get asbestosis have usually been exposed to high levels of asbestos for a long time. The symptoms of these diseases do not usually appear until about 20 to 30 years after the first exposure to asbestos. From studies of people who were exposed to asbestos in factories and shipyards, we know that breathing high levels of asbestos fibers can lead to an increased risk of: lung cancer: mesothelioma, a cancer of the lining of the chest and the abdominal cavity; and asbestosis, in which the lungs become scarred with fibrous tissue. The risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma increases with the number of fibers inhaled. The risk of lung cancer from inhaling asbestos fibers is also greater if you smoke. People who get asbestosis have usually been exposed to high levels of asbestos for a long time. The symptoms of these diseases do not usually appear until about 20 to 30 years after the first exposure to asbestos.

    56. Radon A Serious Health Concern Radon is a naturally occurring gas produced by the breakdown of uranium and radium in ground. Radon 2nd leading cause of lung cancer after smoking with more than 20,000 deaths annually Leading cause of lung cancer in nonsmokers and people who have never smoked. Radon is a naturally occurring gas produced by the breakdown of uranium and radium in soil, rock, and water. Naturally occurring uranium and radium exist in ground especially in granite, shale, phosphate, or pitchblend. Uranium spontaneously breaks down into radium and radium spontaneously breaks down into radon. Radon is a gas that can be carried into the home. Radon spontaneously breaks down into radioactive elements (sometimes called radon decay products) that have a static charge which attracts them to particles such as smoke and dirt. Residents breathe the radioactive elements into their lungs. Residents who smoke breathe in more radioactive elements deep into their lungs. The radioactive elements spontaneously break down to release burst of energy which damages DNA in the lungs. This can lead to cancer. Radon is a Class A carcinogen. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) has determined that radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer overall and the leading cause of lung cancer in non-smokers. In its Assessment of Risks from Radon in Homes, (EPA 402-R-03-003, June 2003, pg 1), EPA estimated that out of a total of 146,600 lung cancer deaths nationally in 1995, 21,100 (14.4%) were radon related. Among non-smokers, an estimated 26% were radon-related.13 EPAs reports estimate that there are about 3,000 deaths due to radon from lung cancer in people who have never smoked. EPA reports that this number is three times more than environmental tobacco smoke-related, lung cancer deaths in people who have never smoked. See Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking: Lung Cancer and Other Disorders, December 1992, Document # EPA/600/6-90/006F.14 The effects of radon and cigarette smoking are synergistic, so that smokers are at higher risk from radon. Radon is a naturally occurring gas produced by the breakdown of uranium and radium in soil, rock, and water. Naturally occurring uranium and radium exist in ground especially in granite, shale, phosphate, or pitchblend. Uranium spontaneously breaks down into radium and radium spontaneously breaks down into radon. Radon is a gas that can be carried into the home. Radon spontaneously breaks down into radioactive elements (sometimes called radon decay products) that have a static charge which attracts them to particles such as smoke and dirt. Residents breathe the radioactive elements into their lungs. Residents who smoke breathe in more radioactive elements deep into their lungs. The radioactive elements spontaneously break down to release burst of energy which damages DNA in the lungs. This can lead to cancer. Radon is a Class A carcinogen. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) has determined that radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer overall and the leading cause of lung cancer in non-smokers. In its Assessment of Risks from Radon in Homes, (EPA 402-R-03-003, June 2003, pg 1), EPA estimated that out of a total of 146,600 lung cancer deaths nationally in 1995, 21,100 (14.4%) were radon related. Among non-smokers, an estimated 26% were radon-related.13 EPAs reports estimate that there are about 3,000 deaths due to radon from lung cancer in people who have never smoked. EPA reports that this number is three times more than environmental tobacco smoke-related, lung cancer deaths in people who have never smoked. See Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking: Lung Cancer and Other Disorders, December 1992, Document # EPA/600/6-90/006F.14 The effects of radon and cigarette smoking are synergistic, so that smokers are at higher risk from radon.

    57. How Radon Gets into a Home Cracks in solid floors Construction joints Cracks in walls Gaps in suspended floors Gaps around service pipes Cavities inside walls Other openings Water supply This slide was taken from EPAs Citizens Guide to Radon (EPA 402-K-02-006, May 2004, pg 4).17 You cant see or smell radon. It is an invisible radioactive gas that comes from the natural decay of uranium that is found in nearly all soils. Air pressure inside the home is usually lower than the pressure in the soil around the homes foundation. Because of this difference in pressure, the house can act as a vacuum, drawing radon in through foundation cracks, and other openings. It typically moves up through the ground to the air above and into your home through cracks and other holes in the foundation. A home can trap radon inside, where it can build up. Any home may have a radon problem. This means new and old homes, well-sealed and drafty homes, and homes with or without basements. Radon from soil gas is the main cause of radon problems. Although the ground is the major source of radon for most homes, sometimes radon enters the home through well water. An NAS report (BEIR VI) issued earlier this year confirmed that there are drinking water related cancer deaths, primarily due to lung cancer (less than 200 lung-cancer deaths per year). The NAS report confirms that the estimated risk posed by radon from drinking water is small, relative to exposure to radon in indoor air, and is larger than the risk from other regulated drinking water contaminants. Most of the cancer risk from radon in drinking water arises from the transfer of radon into indoor air, and exposure through inhalation, although there is some risk from ingesting water containing radon. In a small number of homes, the building materials can give off radon, too. However, building materials rarely cause radon problems by themselves. This slide was taken from EPAs Citizens Guide to Radon (EPA 402-K-02-006, May 2004, pg 4).17 You cant see or smell radon. It is an invisible radioactive gas that comes from the natural decay of uranium that is found in nearly all soils. Air pressure inside the home is usually lower than the pressure in the soil around the homes foundation. Because of this difference in pressure, the house can act as a vacuum, drawing radon in through foundation cracks, and other openings. It typically moves up through the ground to the air above and into your home through cracks and other holes in the foundation. A home can trap radon inside, where it can build up. Any home may have a radon problem. This means new and old homes, well-sealed and drafty homes, and homes with or without basements. Radon from soil gas is the main cause of radon problems. Although the ground is the major source of radon for most homes, sometimes radon enters the home through well water. An NAS report (BEIR VI) issued earlier this year confirmed that there are drinking water related cancer deaths, primarily due to lung cancer (less than 200 lung-cancer deaths per year). The NAS report confirms that the estimated risk posed by radon from drinking water is small, relative to exposure to radon in indoor air, and is larger than the risk from other regulated drinking water contaminants. Most of the cancer risk from radon in drinking water arises from the transfer of radon into indoor air, and exposure through inhalation, although there is some risk from ingesting water containing radon. In a small number of homes, the building materials can give off radon, too. However, building materials rarely cause radon problems by themselves.

    58. Testing for Radon You can purchase radon test kits in the local hardware store, via the Internet or from the National Safety Council. You can also hire a radon professional. If you use a home test kit, it will likely will contain at least one radon testing device, a mailing bag and label and a sheet or card to record the key data. Follow the sampling instructions. Top Right and Bottom Right: The person completing the sampling fills out the radon data card and form to tell the lab the property address, location of the sample, test start and completion date, the serial number for the testing device, building type, whether the home was closed during testing, and the location/address where the result should be mailed. Be sure to promptly send the testing device to the lab. Bottom Left: This picture shows the canisters in a basement area that is not livable. Consumers should place test kits in the lowest lived-in level of their home (according to the EPA Citizens Guide to Radon).17 Please note that in some states, radon professionals who do testing may be required to test areas that are suitable for occupancy but are not the lowest lived-in level (according to EPA Home Buyers and Sellers Guide).15 Conduct the test in a room to be used regularly (e.g., family room, living room, playroom, den bedroom); do not test in a kitchen, bathroom, laundry room or hallway.Put the test kit at least 20 inches off the ground, in an area where it will not be disturbed during the sampling period. Shut off all exhaust fans and keep doors and windows closed during testing (except for normal entry and exit). You can purchase radon test kits in the local hardware store, via the Internet or from the National Safety Council. You can also hire a radon professional. If you use a home test kit, it will likely will contain at least one radon testing device, a mailing bag and label and a sheet or card to record the key data. Follow the sampling instructions. Top Right and Bottom Right: The person completing the sampling fills out the radon data card and form to tell the lab the property address, location of the sample, test start and completion date, the serial number for the testing device, building type, whether the home was closed during testing, and the location/address where the result should be mailed. Be sure to promptly send the testing device to the lab. Bottom Left: This picture shows the canisters in a basement area that is not livable. Consumers should place test kits in the lowest lived-in level of their home (according to the EPA Citizens Guide to Radon).17 Please note that in some states, radon professionals who do testing may be required to test areas that are suitable for occupancy but are not the lowest lived-in level (according to EPA Home Buyers and Sellers Guide).15 Conduct the test in a room to be used regularly (e.g., family room, living room, playroom, den bedroom); do not test in a kitchen, bathroom, laundry room or hallway.Put the test kit at least 20 inches off the ground, in an area where it will not be disturbed during the sampling period. Shut off all exhaust fans and keep doors and windows closed during testing (except for normal entry and exit).

    59. 59

    60. 60 National Healthy Homes Training Center and Network 23 partners across the country Pending Partners: Coalition to End Childhood Lead Poisoning Montana State University Extension Greenville Technical College South Carolina Auburn University Alabama States Not Covered: Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Hawaii, Nevada, Utah, West Virginia We have had strong inquiries from Colorado, Hawaii, Nevada FUNDED PRIMARILY BY CDC AND HUD. Additional funding from EPA. Our partners are mostly universities, but also include health departments, a medical center, a CLPPP program, and several nonprofits.23 partners across the country Pending Partners: Coalition to End Childhood Lead Poisoning Montana State University Extension Greenville Technical College South Carolina Auburn University Alabama States Not Covered: Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Hawaii, Nevada, Utah, West Virginia We have had strong inquiries from Colorado, Hawaii, Nevada FUNDED PRIMARILY BY CDC AND HUD. Additional funding from EPA. Our partners are mostly universities, but also include health departments, a medical center, a CLPPP program, and several nonprofits.

    61. 61 Courses Offered Essentials for Healthy Homes Practitioners Launching a Healthy Homes Initiative Pediatric Environmental Home Assessment Integrated Pest Management in Multi-Family Housing Healthy Homes for Community Health Workers Code Inspection for Healthier Homes Essentials for Healthy Homes Practitioners Two day, face-to-face course that covers the seven principles of healthy housing Launching a Healthy Homes Initiative Develop action steps the community needs to take to launch a healthy homes program. Pediatric Environmental Home Assessment On-line training for nurses and other home visitors Integrated Pest Management in Multi-Family Housing To help property managers for MF housing implement an IPM program Healthy Homes for Community Health Workers HH basics with an emphasis on actual practice in delivering the information Code Inspection for Healthier Homes Introduction to Essentials for code inspectors why healthy homes should be important to them. Gives them the key points they need to walk away with. This is a way to bring code inspectors in to take Essentials learn about HH. Essentials for Healthy Homes Practitioners Two day, face-to-face course that covers the seven principles of healthy housing Launching a Healthy Homes Initiative Develop action steps the community needs to take to launch a healthy homes program. Pediatric Environmental Home Assessment On-line training for nurses and other home visitors Integrated Pest Management in Multi-Family Housing To help property managers for MF housing implement an IPM program Healthy Homes for Community Health Workers HH basics with an emphasis on actual practice in delivering the information Code Inspection for Healthier Homes Introduction to Essentials for code inspectors why healthy homes should be important to them. Gives them the key points they need to walk away with. This is a way to bring code inspectors in to take Essentials learn about HH.

    62. 62 Healthy Homes Specialist Credential National Environmental Health Association Essentials for Healthy Homes Practitioners as preparation Exam / Visual Survey Code Exercise Fee - $205, $150, $75 Five Years Experience Private and Public Sector 315 have received the credential already

    63. 63 Contact Information Susan Aceti National Center for Healthy Housing 10320 Little Patuxent Parkway, #500 Columbia, MD 21046 443-539-4153 saceti@nchh.org