Electromagnetic Radiation and Telescopes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Lucy
slide1 l.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Electromagnetic Radiation and Telescopes PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Electromagnetic Radiation and Telescopes

play fullscreen
1 / 50
Download Presentation
Electromagnetic Radiation and Telescopes
238 Views
Download Presentation

Electromagnetic Radiation and Telescopes

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Electromagnetic Radiation and Telescopes (How we get information about the cosmos and how we gather the information)

  2. Clicker Question a) bend around corners and edges. b) separate into its component colors. c) bend through a lens. d) disperse within a prism. e) reflect off a mirror. Diffraction is the tendency of light to

  3. Clicker Question a) bend around corners and edges. b) separate into its component colors. c) bend through a lens. d) disperse within a prism. e) reflect off a mirror. Diffraction is the tendency of light to Diffraction affects all telescopes and limits the sharpness of all images.

  4. Telescopes

  5. Light Hitting a Telescope Mirror huge mirror near a star * * small mirror far from a star In the second case (reality), light rays from any single point of light are essentially parallel.

  6. Light rays from a distant source, parallel to the "mirror axis“, all meet at one point, the focus. CCD * *

  7. Optical Telescopes Reflecting and refracting telescopes

  8. Optical Telescopes - Refracting vs. Reflecting Refracting telescope Focuses light with a lens (like a camera). image at focus object (point of light) Problems: - Lens can only be supported around edge. - "Chromatic aberration". - Some light absorbed in glass (especially UV, infrared). - Air bubbles and imperfections affect image quality.

  9. Reflecting telescope Focuses light with a curved mirror. <-- object image - Can make bigger mirrors since they are supported from behind. - No chromatic aberration. - Reflects all radiation with little loss by absorption.

  10. Refracting Telescope Reflecting Telescope Yerkes 40-inch (about 1 m). Largest refractor. Cerro-Tololo 4 -m reflector.

  11. Chromatic Aberration Lens - different colors focus at different places. white light Mirror - reflection angle doesn't depend on color.

  12. Types of reflecting telescopes

  13. Clicker Question a)light passing through lenses can be absorbed or scattered. b)large lenses can be very heavy. c)large lenses are more difficult to make. d)mirrors can be computer controlled to improve resolution. e)reflecting telescopes aren’t affected by the atmosphere as much. Modern telescopes use mirrors rather than lenses for all of these reasons EXCEPT

  14. Clicker Question a)light passing through lenses can be absorbed or scattered. b)large lenses can be very heavy. c)large lenses are more difficult to make. d)mirrors can be computer controlled to improve resolution. e)reflecting telescopes aren’t affected by the atmosphere as much. Modern telescopes use mirrors rather than lenses for all of these reasons EXCEPT Reflecting instruments like the KECK telescopes can be made larger, and more capable, than refractors.

  15. Mirror size Mirror with larger area captures more light from a star. Can look at fainter objects with it. Keck 10-m optical telescope 30-100 m optical telescopes now being considered!

  16. Image of Andromeda galaxy with optical telescope. Image with telescope of twice the diameter, same exposure time.

  17. The Two Main Types of Observation Imaging (recording pictures) Spectroscopy (making a spectrum) usually using a diffraction grating In both cases, image or spectrum usually recorded on a CCD ("charge-coupled device")

  18. Resolving Power of a Mirror (how much detail can you see?) fuzziness you would see with your eye. detail you can see with a telescope. (a) 10′; (b) 1′; (c) 5″; (d) 1″

  19. "Angular resolution" is the smallest angle by which two objects can be separated and still be distinguished. For the eye, this is 1' (1/60th of a degree). Or 100 km at distance of the Moon. wavelength mirror diameter angular resolution  For a 2.5-m telescope observing light at 5000 Angstroms (greenish), resolution = 0.05". But, blurring by atmosphere limits resolution of optical telescopes to about 1". This is called seeing.

  20. Seeing * Air density varies => bends light. No longer parallel Parallel rays enter atmosphere dome No blurring case. Rays brought to same focus. Sharp image on CCD. * CCD Blurring. Rays not parallel. Can't be brought into focus. Blurred image.

  21. Example: the Moon observed with a 2.5 m telescope 1" => 2 km 0.05" => 100 m Hubble Space Telescope image, 0.05” resolution Ground-based telescope image, 1” resolution

  22. North America at night So where would you put a telescope?

  23. Kitt Peak National Observatory, near Tucson Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii

  24. Clicker Question a) larger telescopes & longer wavelengths. b) infrared light. c)larger telescopes & shorter wavelengths. d)lower frequency light. e)visible light. Resolution is improved by using

  25. Clicker Question a) larger telescopes & longer wavelengths. b) infrared light. c)larger telescopes & shorter wavelengths. d)lower frequency light. e)visible light. Resolution is improved by using Diffraction limits resolution; larger telescopes and shorter-wave light produces sharper images.

  26. Clicker Question a) they don’t require chemical development. b) digital data is easily stored & transmitted. c) CCDs are more light sensitive than film. d) CCD images can be developed faster. e) All of the above are true. An advantage of CCDs over photographic film is

  27. Clicker Question a) they don’t require chemical development. b) digital data is easily stored & transmitted. c) CCDs are more light sensitive than film. d) CCD images can be developed faster. e) All of the above are true. An advantage of CCDs over photographic film is

  28. Clicker Question a) the quality of the telescope’s optics. b) the transparency of a telescope’s lens. c) the sharpness of vision of your eyes. d) the image quality due to air stability. e) the sky’s clarity & absence of clouds. Seeing in astronomy is a measurement of

  29. Smeared overall image of star Point images of a star Clicker Question a) the quality of the telescope’s optics. b) the transparency of a telescope’s lens. c) the sharpness of vision of your eyes. d) the image quality due to air stability. e) the sky’s clarity & absence of clouds. Seeing in astronomy is a measurement of “Good Seeing” occurs when the atmosphere is clear and the air is still. Turbulent air produces “poor seeing,” and fuzzier images.

  30. Radio Telescopes Large metal dish acts as a mirror for radio waves. Radio receiver at prime focus. Surface accuracy not so important, so easy to make large one. But angular resolution is poor. Remember: Effelsberg 100-m (Germany) Andromeda galaxy – optical wavelength mirror diameter angular resolution  D larger than optical case, but wavelength much larger (cm's to m's), e.g. for wavelength = 1 cm, diameter = 100 m, resolution = 20". Andromeda radio map with Effelsberg telescope

  31. Radio Astronomy • Longer wavelength means poorer angular resolution. • Advantages of radio astronomy: • Can observe 24 hours a day. • Clouds, rain, and snow don’t interfere. • Observations at an entirely different frequency; get totally different information.

  32. Parkes 64-m (Australia) Jodrell Bank 76-m (England) Arecibo 300-m telescope (Puerto Rico) Green Bank 100-m telescope (WV)

  33. Interferometry A technique to get improved angular resolution using an array of telescopes. Most common in radio, but also limited optical interferometry. D Consider two dishes with separation D vs. one dish of diameter D. By combining the radio waves from the two dishes, the achieved angular resolution is the same as the large dish.

  34. Example: wavelength = 1 cm, separation = 2 km, resolution = 1" Very Large Array (NM). Maximum separation 30 km Very Long Baseline Array. Maximum separation 1000's of km VLA and optical image of Centaurus A

  35. Clicker Question a) improve angular resolution. b) give greater magnification. c) increase the range of waves they can collect. d) detect shorter waves than optical telescopes for superior resolution. Radio dishes are large in order to

  36. Clicker Question a) improve angular resolution. b) give greater magnification. c) increase the range of waves they can collect. d) detect shorter waves than optical telescopes for superior resolution. Radio dishes are large in order to Resolution is worse with long-wave light, so radio telescopes must be large to compensate.

  37. Clicker Question a)observations can be made day & night. b)we can see objects that don’t emit visible light. c)radio waves are not blocked by interstellar dust. d)they can be linked to form interferometers. e)All of the above are true. Radio telescopes are useful because

  38. Clicker Question a)observations can be made day & night. b)we can see objects that don’t emit visible light. c)radio waves are not blocked by interstellar dust. d)they can be linked to form interferometers. e)All of the above are true. Radio telescopes are useful because The Very Large Array links separate radio telescopes to create much better resolution.

  39. When multiple radio telescopes are used for interferometry, resolving power is most improved by increasing: A: the distance between telescopes; B: the number of telescopes in a given area; C: the diameter of each telescope; D: the power supplied to each telescope Clicker Question:

  40. Astronomy at Other Wavelengths Telescopes also observe infrared, UV, X-rays and gamma rays. Mostly done from space because of Earth's atmosphere. Infrared allows you to see radiation from warm dust in interstellar gas. Spitzer Space Telescope - infrared

  41. Infrared also allows you to see through dust. Dust is good at blocking visible light but infrared gets through better. Trifid nebula in visible light Trifid nebula with Spitzer

  42. GLAST – Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope Gamma rays are the most energetic photons, tracing high-energy events in Universe such as “Gamma-ray Bursters”. Latest mission is GLAST – successfully launched this year.

  43. X-ray Optics X rays and gamma rays will not reflect off mirrors as other wavelengths do; need new techniques. X rays will reflect at a very shallow angle, and can therefore be focused. Gamma Rays cannot be focused at all; images are coarse

  44. Hubble Space Telescope and its successor-to-be: the James Webb Space Telescope Advantage of space for optical astronomy: get above blurring atmosphere – much sharper images. Center of M51: HST (left; 0.05” resolution) vs. ground-based (right; 1” resolution)

  45. The James Web Space Telescope Mock-up of JWST Will have diameter 6.5 meters (vs. HST 2.5 meters) – much higher resolution and sensitivity. Will also observe infrared, whereas Hubble is best at visible light. Expected launch 2013.

  46. The biggest telescopes on Earth are: A: Gamma-ray telescopes. B: X-ray telescopes. C: Optical telescopes D: Radio telescopes E: Infra-red telescopes Clicker Question:

  47. Much can be learned from observing the same astronomical object at many wavelengths. Here, the Milky Way.

  48. Summary of Chapter 3 • Refracting telescopes make images with a lens. • Reflecting telescopes make images with a mirror. • Modern research telescopes are all reflectors. • CCDs are used for data collection. • Data can be formed into image, analyzed spectroscopically, or used to measure intensity. • Large telescopes gather much more light, allowing study of very faint sources. • Large telescopes also have better resolution.

  49. Summary of Chapter 3, cont. • Resolution of ground-based optical telescopes is limited by atmospheric effects. • Resolution of radio or space-based telescopes is limited by diffraction. • Active and adaptive optics can minimize atmospheric effects. • Radio telescopes need large collection area; diffraction is limited. • Interferometry can greatly improve resolution.

  50. Summary of Chapter 3, cont. • Infrared and ultraviolet telescopes are similar to optical. • Ultraviolet telescopes must be above atmosphere. • X rays can be focused, but very differently than visible light. • Gamma rays can be detected but not imaged.