Anatomy of the Spinal Cord….
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Anatomy of the Spinal Cord…. Meninges …. Pia Mater. Arachnoid Mater. The sub arachnoid space: contains the spinal fluid. Dura Mater. Epidural Space : out here between the dura mater and the bone. Anatomy of the Spinal Cord…. Spinal Cord: Gray Matter. Posterior Horn. Central Canal.

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Meninges….

Pia Mater

Arachnoid Mater

The sub arachnoid space: contains the spinal fluid

Dura Mater

Epidural Space: out here between the dura mater and the bone



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Spinal Cord: Gray Matter

Posterior Horn

Central Canal

Posterior gray horns contain somatic and visceral sensory nuclei

Anterior gray horns contain somatic motor nuclei

Lateral gray horns (only located in the thoracic and lumbar segments) contain visceral motor nuclei

Anterior Horn


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Spinal Cord: White Matter

Posterior White Column

Each column contains tracts(axons)

Ascending tracts carry sensory information from the body toward the brain

Descending tracts carry motor commands to the spinal cord

Lateral White Column

Anterior White Column

Anterior Median Fissure


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Central Nervous System

Peripheral Nervous System

What do we know about the nervous system?

Major Divisions

Central (CNS) – the brain and spinal cord

Peripheral (PNS) – the nerves connecting muscles and organs to the CNS


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Nerves

What do we know about the Peripheral Nervous System?

3 kinds of neurons

  • sensory – sensory receptors

  • motor – connected to muscles and organs

  • interneurons – connection within the CNS


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What do we know about the Peripheral Nervous System?

How many cranial nerves?

How many spinal nerves?

12 pairs

32 pairs

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Autonomic

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Brain

Sensory

Neuron

Motor

Neuron

Skin receptors

Interneuron

Muscle

What do we know about the Somatic Nervous System?

Nerves to and from

spinal cord

Controls both

voluntary muscle

& reflex movements

Simplest reflex

Reflex arc


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Pupils dilate EYES Pupils contract

Decreases SALVATION Increases

Perspires SKIN Dries

Increases RESPERATION Decreases

Accelerates HEART Slows

Inhibits DIGESTION Activates

Secrete stress

hormones

ADRENAL

GLANDS

Decrease secretion

of stress hormones

What do we know about the Autonomic Nervous System?

Two divisions

Sympathetic

Parasympathetic

Controls

Involuntary functions


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Brain

Spinal

Cord

What do we know about the Central Nervous System?


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Frontal

Corpus Callosum

Right

Hemisphere

Parietal

Occipital

Temporal

Left

Hemisphere

What do we know about

theBrain?

Brain has Hemispheres

2

Each Hemisphere

is divided into 4

lobes


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Left visual

field

Right visual

field

Motor Cortex

Somatosensory Cortex

Optic

nerves

Left Visual

Cortex

Corpus

Callosum

Right Visual

Cortex

What do we know about

Contralateral organization?

Sensory Information sent to hemisphere

Movement controlled by

Motor cortex

Right Hemisphere controls

of body

left side

opposite


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Frontal

Parietal

Occipital

Temporal

What do we know about

Localization of function?

Frontal

Motor, speech

Temporal

hearing, memory

Occipital

balance, vision

Parietal

Somatosensory cortex


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Corpus Callosum

What do we know about

Corpus Callosum?

Major (but not only) pathway between

left & right hemispheres

Data received on one side can be processed in both

hemispheres

motor coordination

Aids

Of left and right sides of body


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What do we know about

Nervous system damage?

Can occur due to:

Genetics (inherited) illness (viral or bacterial), congenital (birth defect), or injury

Can affect:

Central nervous system and/or peripheral nervous system


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Genetic

Huntington’s Disease

Lou Gehrig’s Disease Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

HDcauses progressive degeneration of brain cells (neurons) in certain areas of the brain

Leads to loss of motor control and intellectual faculties, emotional disturbances, and death

ALScauses progressive destruction of anterior horn motor neurons of the spinal column

Leads to paralysis and death


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Illness

Poliomyelitis

Syphilis

Poliomeans gray matter

The polio virus causes inflammation of the gray matter in the anterior horn motor neurons.

These neurons innervate muscles

Symptoms:causes muscle paralysis

Neurosyphilis can occur when syphilis infection goes untreated

Areas of the brain can be damaged

Symptoms:behavioral changes, mood swings, and progressive confusion


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Congenital

Spina bifida

Anencephaly

Results when the cerebrum fails to develop

Symptoms:unable to hear, see, or process sensory input

Results when the vertebrae form incompletely

The spinal cord can be exposed or incompletely formed

Symptoms:complete loss of function from point of defect


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Injury

How might damage to the peripheral nervous system present itself?

How might damage to the central nervous system present itself?


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Which system is affected?

Positive babinski

PNS

Loss of bladder control

PNS

Unable to speak

CNS

Can’t shrug left shoulder

PNS

Loss of memory

CNS

Inability to move left leg

CNS

Inability to feel heat

PNS