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Blood. Ch 19. Blood. Artery. White blood cells. Platelets. Red blood cells. Function Blood. Deliver O2 Remove metabolic wastes Maintain temperature, pH, and fluid volume Protection from blood loss- platelets Prevent infection- antibodies and WBC Transport hormones. Blood.

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slide1

Blood

Ch 19

slide2

Blood

Artery

White blood cells

Platelets

Red blood cells

slide3

Function Blood

  • Deliver O2
  • Remove metabolic wastes
  • Maintain temperature, pH, and fluid volume
  • Protection from blood loss- platelets
  • Prevent infection- antibodies and WBC
  • Transport hormones
slide4

Blood

Plasma-55%

Buffy coat-<1%

Formed elements-45%

slide5

Blood Plasma Components-55%

90% Water

8% Solutes:

  • Proteins

Albumin (60 %)

Alpha and Beta Globulins

Gamma Globulins

fibrinogens

  • Gas
  • Electrolytes
slide6

Blood Plasma Components

  • Organic Nutrients

Carbohydrates

Amino Acids

Lipids

Vitamins

  • Hormones
  • Metabolic waste

CO2

Urea

slide7

Buffy Coat- <1%

  • Leukocytes
  • Platelets
slide8

Formed Elements of the Blood-45%

  • Erythrocytes (red blood cells)
  • Leukocytes (white blood cells)
  • Platelets (thrombocytes)
slide10

Erythrocyte7.5m in dia

·Anucleate- so can't reproduce; however, repro in red bone marrow

·Hematopoiesis- production of RBC

·Function- transport respiratory gases

·Hemoglobin- quaternary structure, 2  chains and 2  chains

·Lack mitochondria. Why?

·1 RBC contains 280 million hemoglobin molecules

·Men- 5 million cells/mm3

·Women- 4.5 million cells/mm3

·Life span 100-120 days and then destroyed in spleen (RBC graveyard)

hematopoiesis
Hematopoiesis
  • Hematopoiesis (hemopoiesis): blood cell formation
    • Occurs in red bone marrow of axial skeleton, girdles and proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur
hematopoiesis13
Hematopoiesis
  • Hemocytoblasts (hematopoietic stem cells)
    • Give rise to all formed elements
    • Hormones and growth factors push the cell toward a specific pathway of blood cell development
  • New blood cells enter blood sinusoids
erythropoiesis
Erythropoiesis
  • Erythropoiesis: red blood cell production
    • A hemocytoblast is transformed into a proerythroblast
    • Proerythroblasts develop into early erythroblasts
erythropoiesis15
Erythropoiesis
  • Phases in development
    • Ribosome synthesis
    • Hemoglobin accumulation
    • Ejection of the nucleus and formation of reticulocytes
  • Reticulocytes then become mature erythrocytes
slide16

Stem cell

Committed

cell

Developmental pathway

Phase 1

Ribosome

synthesis

Phase 2

Hemoglobin

accumulation

Phase 3

Ejection of

nucleus

Reticulo-

cyte

Erythro-

cyte

Proerythro-

blast

Early

erythroblast

Late

erythroblast

Normoblast

Hemocytoblast

Figure 17.5

regulation of erythropoiesis
Regulation of Erythropoiesis
  • Too few RBCs leads to tissue hypoxia
  • Too many RBCs increases blood viscosity
  • Balance between RBC production and destruction depends on
    • Hormonal controls
    • Adequate supplies of iron, amino acids, and B vitamins
hormonal control of erythropoiesis
Hormonal Control of Erythropoiesis
  • Erythropoietin (EPO)
    • Direct stimulus for erythropoiesis
    • Released by the kidneys in response to hypoxia
hormonal control of erythropoiesis19
Hormonal Control of Erythropoiesis
  • Causes of hypoxia
    • Hemorrhage or increased RBC destruction reduces RBC numbers
    • Insufficient hemoglobin (e.g., iron deficiency)
    • Reduced availability of O2 (e.g., high altitudes)
hormonal control of erythropoiesis20
Hormonal Control of Erythropoiesis
  • Effects of EPO
    • More rapid maturation of committed bone marrow cells
    • Increased circulating reticulocyte count in 1–2 days
  • Testosterone also enhances EPO production, resulting in higher RBC counts in males
slide23

RBC Diseases

Anemia- when blood has low O2 carrying capacity; insufficient RBC or iron deficiency.

Factors that can cause anemia- exercise, B12 deficiency

Polycythemia- excess of erythrocytes,  viscosity of blood;

8-11 million cells/mm3

Usually caused by cancer, tissue hypoxia, dehydration; however, naturally occurs at high elevations

Blood doping- in athletesremove blood 2 days before event and then replace it; Epoetin;- banned by Olympics.

slide24

RBC Diseases

Sickle-cell anemia-

HbS results from a change in just one of the 287 amino acids in the  chain in the globin molecule.

Found in 1 out of 400 African Americans.

Abnormal hemoglobin crystalizes when O2 content of blood is low, causing RBCs to become sickle-shaped.

Homozygous for sickle-cell is deadly, but in malaria infested countries, the heterozygous condition is beneficial.

genetics of sickle cell anemia
Genetics of Sickle Cell Anemia

Genetics of Sickle Cell Anemia

slide26

Types of Leukocytes

4,000-11,000 cells/mm 3

Never let monkeys eat bananas

Granulocytes

Neutrophils- 40-70%

Eosinophils- 1-4%

Basophils- <1%

Agranulocytes

Monocytes- 4-8%

Lymphocytes- 20-45%

slide27

Lymphocyte

Eosinophil

Basophil

platelet

Neutrophil

Monocyte

slide28

eosinophil

neutrophil

monocyte

RBC

neutrophil

monocyte

lymphocyte

lymphocyte

basophil

slide31

WBC Diseases

  • Leukopenia
    • Abnormally low WBC count—drug induced
  • Leukemias
    • Cancerous conditions involving WBCs
    • Named according to the abnormal WBC clone involved
  • Mononucleosis
    • highly contagious viral disease caused by Epstein-Barr virus; excessive # of agranulocytes; fatigue, sore throat, recover in a few weeks
platelets
Platelets
  • Small fragments of megakaryocytes
  • Formation is regulated by thrombopoietin
  • Blue-staining outer region, purple granules
  • Granules contain serotonin, Ca2+, enzymes, ADP, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
slide33

Stem cell

Developmental pathway

Hemocyto-

blast

Promegakaryocyte

Megakaryoblast

Megakaryocyte

Platelets

Figure 17.12

hemostasis stoppage of bleeding

Platelet Plug

Clotting Factors

Hemostasis- stoppage of bleeding

Platelets: 250,000-500,000 cells/mm3

Tissue Damage

slide35

Hemostasis:

  • Vessel injury

2. Vascular spasm

3. Platelet plug formation

4. Coagulation

hemostasis feedback

Clotting Factors

thromboplastin

Prothrombin

Thrombin

Fibrinogen

Fibrin

Hemostasis(+ feedback)

Traps RBC & platelets

Platelets release thromboplastin

blood clot
Blood Clot

RBC

Platelet

Fibrin thread

disorders of hemostasis
Disorders of Hemostasis
  • Thromboembolytic disorders: undesirable clot formation
  • Bleeding disorders: abnormalities that prevent normal clot formation
thromboembolytic conditions
Thromboembolytic Conditions
  • Thrombus: clot that develops and persists in an unbroken blood vessel
    • May block circulation, leading to tissue death
  • Embolus: a thrombus freely floating in the blood stream
    • Pulmonary emboli impair the ability of the body to obtain oxygen
    • Cerebral emboli can cause strokes
thromboembolytic conditions40
Thromboembolytic Conditions
  • Prevented by
    • Aspirin
      • Antiprostaglandin that inhibits thromboxane A2
    • Heparin
      • Anticoagulant used clinically for pre- and postoperative cardiac care
    • Warfarin
      • Used for those prone to atrial fibrillation
slide41

Bleeding Disorders

  • Thrombocytosis- too many platelets due to inflammation, infection or cancer
  • Thrombocytopenia- too few platelets
  • causes spontaneous bleeding
  • due to suppression or destruction of bone marrow (e.g., malignancy, radiation)
    • Platelet count <50,000/mm3 is diagnostic
    • Treated with transfusion of concentrated platelets
slide42

Bleeding Disorders

  • Impaired liver function
    • Inability to synthesize procoagulants
    • Causes include vitamin K deficiency, hepatitis, and cirrhosis
    • Liver disease can also prevent the liver from producing bile, impairing fat and vitamin K absorption
bleeding disorders
Bleeding Disorders
  • Hemophilias include several similar hereditary bleeding disorders
  • Symptoms include prolonged bleeding, especially into joint cavities
  • Treated with plasma transfusions and injection of missing factors
slide45

Blood Types

Type A

Type B

Type AB

Type O

slide46

Blood Typing

Blood type is based on the presence of 2 major antigens in RBC membranes-- A and B

Blood type Antigen Antibody

A A anti-B

B B anti-A

A & B AB no anti body

Neither A or B O anti-A and anti-B

Antigen- protein on the surface of a RBC membrane

Antibody- proteins made by lymphocytes in plasma which are made in response to the presence of antigens.

They attack foreign antigens, which result in clumping (agglutination)

type a

ABO Blood Types

Type A

b

b

Produces anti-B antibodies

b

b

b

b

b

b

type b

ABO Blood Types

Type B

a

a

a

Produces anti-A antibodies

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

type ab

ABO Blood Types

Type AB

Produces neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies

type o

ABO Blood Types

Type O

b

a

b

a

a

Produces both anti-A and anti-B antibodies

b

a

b

a

a

b

a

b

a

a

a

b

b

rh factor and pregnancy
Rh Factor and Pregnancy

RH+ indicates protein

RH+ indicates protein

RH- indicates no protein

rh factor and pregnancy52
Rh Factor and Pregnancy

Rh+ mother w/Rh- baby– no problem

Rh- mother w/Rh+ baby– problem

Rh- mother w/Rh- father– no problem

Rh- mother w/Rh- baby-- no problem

RhoGAM used @ 28 weeks

slide53

Type AB- universal recipients

Type O- universal donor

Rh factor:

Rh+ 85% dominant in pop

Rh- 15% recessive

Blood Type Clumping Antibody

A antigen A anti-A serum antibody anti-b

B antigen B anti-B serum antibody anti-a

AB antigen A & B anti A & B serum -

O neither A or B no clumping w/ either anti A or B anti-a, anti-b

slide54

Serum

Blood being tested

Anti-A

Anti-B

Type AB (contains

agglutinogens A and B;

agglutinates with both

sera)

RBCs

Type A (contains

agglutinogen A;

agglutinates with anti-A)

Type B (contains

agglutinogen B;

agglutinates with anti-B)

Type O(contains no

agglutinogens; does not

agglutinate with either

serum)

Figure 17.16

slide55

Blood Type & Rh

How Many Have It

Frequency

O

Rh Positive

1 person in 3

37.4%

O

Rh Negative

1 person in 15

6.6%

A

Rh Positive

1 person in 3

35.7%

A

Rh Negative

1 person in 16

6.3%

B

Rh Positive

1 person in 12

8.5%

B

Rh Negative

1 person in 67

1.5%

AB

Rh Positive

1 person in 29

3.4%

AB

Rh Negative

1 person in 167

.6%

abo blood types
ABO Blood Types

PhenotypeGenotype

Oi i

AI A I A or I A i

BI B I B or I B i

ABI A I B

slide57

Punnett square

Type A and Type B cross

i

IB

IAi

IAIB

IA

IA

IAi

IAIB

slide58

INQUIRY

  • What is an erythrocyte, leukocyte, and thrombocyte?
  • What 2 things do red cells lack compared to white cells?
  • What dietary component is needed for the production of red blood cells?
  • The largest cells in the blood that leave the bloodstream to become macrophages are ____.
  • In an acute infection, the white cell count would show as ______.
  • Erythroblastosis fetalis , also known as hemolytic newborn disease, occurs in ____ mothers carrying ____ fetuses.
  • What antigens and antibodies found on AB red cells?
  • In a transfusion, what type blood can you give a type O person?