Modern Child Slavery
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Modern Child Slavery. Youth Advocate Program International 4545 42 nd St. NW, Suite 209 Washington DC 20016, USA www.yapi.org. Child Slavery. What Do you Know?. What does slavery mean? Does slavery exist today? Are there laws that protect the rights of children?

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Modern Child Slavery

Youth Advocate Program International

4545 42nd St. NW, Suite 209

Washington DC 20016, USA

www.yapi.org


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Child Slavery

What Do you Know?

  • What does slavery mean?

  • Does slavery exist today?

  • Are there laws that protect the rights of children?

  • Which continent do you think has the largest percentage of modern child slavery?

Source: www.stolenchildhoods.org


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Source: BBC

Child Slavery

Definition

  • A child slave…

  • is under the age of eighteen.

  • receives extremely little or no pay.

  • is controlled by violence or other threats.

  • has no option to leave the situation.

  • has no access to education or health care.


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Child Slavery

A Life

Iqbal Masih was a child slave in Pakistan. His parents were too poor to afford food; they borrowed $16 in exchange for sending Iqbal to a carpet factory to work off the loan. Iqbal was only 4 years old. The children in the factory worked 14 hours a day, six days a week without any breaks. They were beaten and chained to their looms if they complained or tried to escape.

When he was 10, Iqbal learned about a new law that forbade bonded labor. He left the factory, entered school, and began to speak out on behalf of children who still worked in factories. However Iqbal’s actions made many people angry; he was shot and killed in April 1995. Iqbal was only 12 years old.

Source: Stolen Dreams: Portraits of Working Children.

Source: UNICEF Italy


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Child Slavery

Basic Facts

  • There are more slaves today than were seized from Africa during the entire 400 years of the trans-Atlantic slave trade.

  • The price for a slave in 1850 in Mississippi was $40,000 (based on constant 1999 dollars). The average price of a slave today is $80.

  • One in every six children aged 5 to 17 worldwide is exploited by child labor.

  • There are approximately 9 million children involved in the unconditional worst forms of child labor that we call slavery.

  • Source: Bales, Kevin. 2000. Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy. University of California Press.

  • Source: Bales, Kevin. 2000. New Slavery: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO.

  • Source: Investing in Every Child: An Economic Study of the Costs and Benefits of Eliminating Child Labor. 2004 Geneva: International Labor Organization.

  • Source: UNICEF. www.unicef.org/protection/index_childlabour.html (May 2, 2004).


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Child Slavery

Where It Occurs

  • There are 27 million adult and child slaves in the world today.

  • 246 million children aged 5-17 are child workers throughout the world.

Source: Bales, Kevin. 2000. Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy. University of California Press.

Source: IPEC Action Against Child Labor: Highlights 2002. 2002. Geneva: International Labor Organization.

Source: UNICEF. <www.unicef.org/protection/index_childlabour.html> (May 2, 2004).


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Child Slavery

Forms of Child Slavery

  • Forced Labor

    • to extract work or service

    • from any person using the

    • threat of penalties.

  • Debt Bondage

    • debt bondage occurs when an individual is pledged into slavery as collateral on a loan or to pay a debt. Sometimes parents will pledge their children or the entire family into debt bondage.

    • It is nearly impossible to pay off debt because additional debt is constantly accrued through additional expenses, such as food and lodging.

Source: BBC


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Child Slavery

Forms of Child Slavery

  • Chattel Slavery

    • Chattel slavery is the most widely documented, historic form of slavery.

    • Chattel slaves are legally viewed as personal property that can be sold and traded by their master.

  • Religious Slavery

    • Religious slavery refers to when

    • children are sold or given to temple

    • gods and priests.

    • This still occurs today in parts of

    • Africa (such as Ghana) and India.


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Child Slavery

Effect on Children

  • Health: child slaves are easily replaced; it is more expensive to nurse a sick child to health than to buy a new slave. Consequently, children rarely get medical or psychological attention if needed.

  • Education: child slaves are often denied access to education. Thus, even if they escape slavery, they do not have the skills necessary for higher-paying jobs.

  • Family Ties: child slaves are often separated from their families. Even if these children escape from slavery, their families still may not welcome them home.

Source: Jon Warren via Hamline University


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Child Slavery

Why Does It Exist?

  • Poverty: Children who live in extreme poverty are most susceptible to enslavement.

  • Tradition:Some parents view their children as property over which they have the right to control.

  • Control:Children are attractive slaves because they are easier than adults to manipulate and control.

  • Cheap and Replaceable:The average slave today costs less than $100. Overpopulation in some regions mean there is an abundant supply of children who are available as slaves.

  • Physical Size:Because they are smaller than adults, child slaves are more desirable for certain tasks such as weaving rugs and picking cocoa.


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Source: Jon Warren via Hamline University

Child Slavery

What Can You Do?

  • Educateyourself about Child Slavery.

  • Contactlocal, state, and national

    politicians for support against Child Slavery.

    • Write letters asking for their opinion on

      Child Slavery.

  • Talkto your parents about Child Slavery.

    • Educate the adults in your life!

  • Advocate for Child Slavery awareness!

    • Begin a social awareness/ human rights club.


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Child Slavery

For More Information

Anti-Slavery International

www.antislavery.org

Free the Slaves

www.freetheslaves.net

Global March

www.globalmarch.org

Child Labor Coalition

www.stopchildlabor.org

UNICEF

www.unicef.org

Free the Children

www.freethechildren.org

Youth Advocate Program International

www.yapi.org