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Where in the World Are We? Where in the World Are We? Etruscan Art The Forefathers of the Romans Etruscans Who? Primary Italian society prior to the Roman empire Same as Archaic period in Greece Much of their culture was adopted by Rome Most information comes from their tombs

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etruscans who
Etruscans Who?
  • Primary Italian society prior to the Roman empire
    • Same as Archaic period in Greece
    • Much of their culture was adopted by Rome
  • Most information comes from their tombs
    • Preoccupied with death and superstition
  • Rather bloodthirsty
    • Invented gladiators

Sacrifice of the Trojan Captives

4th Century BC (300’s)

early funerary customs
Early Funerary Customs
  • Cremated and buried their dead
  • Created clay urns that would symbolize the dead person and keep their spirit from haunting the living

Burial Urn - 675-650 BC

sarcophagi coffins
Sarcophagi (Coffins)

Coffins became more and more elaborate over time

Terracotta (clay) Sarcophagus - 520 BC

tomb decoration
Tomb Decoration
  • To get the spirit to remain in the tomb, they would make them look as much like a home as possible

Burial Chamber

3rd Century BC

tomb fresco
Tomb Fresco
  • Scenes depicting everyday Etruscan life
    • Dances, festivals, executions, etc.

Ritual Dance

“Tomb of the Lionesses”

480-470 BC

later tombs
Later Tombs
  • Death become much less “fun” around the 4th Century BC (300’s)
  • The smiles are gone, replaced by demon figures, scary monsters
  • Still TERRACOTTA

Sarcophagus - early 300’s BC

temple architecture
Temple Architecture
  • Built mostly of clay and wood - stone foundation is all that remains
  • Cross between a Greek temple and an Etruscan house

Reconstruction of 2nd C. BC Etruscan Temple

temple architecture11
Temple Architecture
  • Built mostly of clay and wood - stone foundation is all that remains
  • Cross between a Greek temple and an Etruscan house

Reconstruction of 2nd C. BC Etruscan Temple

architectural sculpture
Architectural Sculpture
  • Life-size
  • Terracotta
  • Note archaic Greek and Mesopotamian influences

Artist: Vulcan

Apollo - 510 BC

bronze portrait sculpture
Bronze Portrait Sculpture
  • Romans gradually took over in the 5th and 4th centuries BC
  • Etruscan minority still produced artwork
  • Note toga and imperial gesture

Portrait of Aulus Metellus

80BC

etruscan summary
Etruscan Summary
  • Most information/art comes from tombs
  • Masters of clay and bronze
  • Very superstitious and bloodthirsty
  • Combined Greek and Near Eastern styles
  • Aesthetic, cultural, and engineering ancestors of the Romans
the roman melting pot
The Roman “Melting Pot”
  • Like the USA, the Romans “assimilated” many different kinds of people
  • Each nation would bring its own artistic styles
  • The influences most obvious in Roman art were:
    • Greece
    • Etruria (the Etruscans)
    • Egypt
    • The Near East (Mesopotamia)
slide18

Aesthetics - Greek and Roman

  • Greeks
    • Search for ideal beauty
  • Romans
    • Emphasis on practicality - a good copy was just as good
slide19

Aesthetics - Greek and Roman

  • Greeks
    • Search for ideal beauty
    • Pathos
  • Romans
    • Emphasis on practicality - a good copy was just as good
    • Entertainment
slide20

Aesthetics - Greek and Roman

  • Greeks
    • Search for ideal beauty
    • Pathos
    • Depicted themselves as they wanted to be
  • Romans
    • Emphasis on practicality - a good copy was just as good
    • Entertainment
    • Emphasized true realism
really really big buildings
Really, Really BIG Buildings

Due to the development of

  • Concrete (with brick or marble facade)
  • The true arch
  • The barrel vault

The Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia – 90’s B.C.

the bath house
The Bath House

Bath house floor mosaic

Ostia

The Basilica of Constantine, Rome

310-320 A.D.

amazing public works
Amazing Public Works
  • Bridges
  • Roads
  • Aqueducts

Pont du Gard, Nimes France

the colosseum
The Colosseum
  • Seating for 50,000!
  • Gladiators, executions, mock battles
  • Timber flooring with elevators, cages drainage, etc. underneath
  • Giant awning for shade
  • Nautical (sea) battles

Constr. 72-80 A.D.

the pantheon
The Pantheon
  • Originally a temple to the 7 planetary gods (“pantheism”)
  • Now a museum
  • Intended to be perfectly balanced
  • Based on the circle and square (domed)

118-125 AD

the triumphal arch
The Triumphal Arch

The Arch of Constantine – 310-320 A.D.

commemorative columns
Commemorative Columns

The ultimate gravestone

Low-relief carvings commemorate specific events

The Column of Trajan – 106-113 A.D. - Def. of “Romanians”

125 ft. tall - 625 ft. of carvings

roman sculpture
Roman Sculpture

Two main categories:

  • Imperial
    • Designed to make the ruler into something superhuman/godlike
    • Idealized
  • Simple portraiture
    • True realism - tried to capture the sitters real appearance

Augustus of Primaporta – 20 BC

slide30
Note:

- contraposto

Augustus of Primaporta

slide31

Note:

- contraposto

- imperial gesture

Augustus of Primaporta

slide32

Head of Constantine

Octavius depicted as Mercury

portrait sculpture
Portrait Sculpture
  • Very popular for anyone with the money to pay
  • Literally “mapped” the face of the sitter

Emperor Philippus (the Arab) 244-249 AD

Emperor Vespasian - 75AD

ancestor portraits
Ancestor Portraits
  • Like a three-dimensional family album

Portrait head examples - Vatican Museum

Patrician with busts of his ancestors - 30BC

roman mosaic
Roman Mosaic
  • Mosaic - image created using small pieces of colored marble inlaid into the plaster surface

The Battle of Issus - copy of Greek painting - 9’x17’

(Alexander the Great defeating the Persians)

Awesome COMPOSITION*

composition
Composition
  • The purposeful arrangement of shapes
    • To direct the attention of the viewer
    • To add direction/drama
    • To reinforce an idea
domestic painting fresco

Floor plan of typical Roman house

Domestic Painting (Fresco)

To decorate, entertain, or make the house appear bigger

House in Herculaneum - 79 AD

mythological scenes phony cupboards or textures
Mythological Scenes, Phony Cupboards or Textures

Still Life - 50 AD

Venus and Amor

ritual scenes
Ritual Scenes

“Roman TV”

Scenes from the Villa of Mysteries - Pompeii

Illustrations of cult rituals

late roman painting
Late Roman Painting
  • “Egypto-Roman” portrait painting
  • Utilized Encaustic
    • Pigment suspended in hot WAX
    • Painted on wood panel
classical art
“Classical” Art
  • Term used to describe art and architecture that uses elements originating with the Greeks and Romans
classical art44
“Classical” Art
  • Term used to describe art and architecture that uses elements originating with the Greeks and Romans
  • Sculpture
    • Togas, drapery
    • Pathos
    • Idealized human forms
classical art45
“Classical” Art
  • Term used to describe art and architecture that uses elements originating with the Greeks and Romans
  • Sculpture
    • Togas, drapery
    • Pathos
    • Idealized human forms
  • Architecture
    • Fluted columns
    • Arches
    • Post & lintel