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Food Safety: What You DON'T Know. CAN. Hurt YOU!. University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension in Lancaster County. Joyce Jensen, REHS, CP-FS. Alice Henneman, MS, RD. Lincoln-Lancaster County Health Dept. I wish I’d known these things!. Questions? Email ahenneman1@unl.edu.

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Food Safety:

What You DON'T Know

CAN

Hurt YOU!


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University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension in Lancaster County

Joyce Jensen, REHS, CP-FS

Alice Henneman, MS, RD

Lincoln-Lancaster County Health Dept.

I wish I’d known these things!

Questions? Email ahenneman1@unl.edu

Updated June, 2010.This is a peer-reviewed publication.


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10 Safety Myths

Don’t be “myth”-led!

Following arethe facts for 10 common foodsafety myths...


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Myth 1

If it tastes okay, it’s safe to eat.


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Smell

Sight

Taste

Fact 1

Don’t counton these to tell you ifa food issafe to eat!


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76 million peoplebecome ill

Estimates of foodborne illnesses in the U.S. each year

5,000 people die



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Even if tasting would tell … tasted, looked or smelled bad?

Why risk getting sick?

A “tiny taste” may not protect you.

As few as 10 bacteriacould cause somefoodborne illnesses, such as E. coli!


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OOPS! tasted, looked or smelled bad?

Myth 2

If you get sick from eating a food, it was from the last food you ate.


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Fact 2 tasted, looked or smelled bad?

It can take ½ hour to6 weeks tobecome sickfrom unsafe foods.



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Hey guys, I have to throw up! sick later.

Foodborne illness is NOT a pretty picture!


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Myth 3 sick later.

The worst that could happen to you with a foodborne illness is an upset stomach.


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Upset stomach sick later.

OOPS!

Dehydration(sometimes severe)

Fact 3

Diarrhea

Fever


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Meningitis sick later.

Death

Less common, but possible severe conditions

Paralysis


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Myth 4 sick later.

If I’ve never been sick from the food I prepare, I don’t need to worry about feeding it to others.


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Fact 4 sick later.

Some people have a greater risk for foodborne illnesses.

Is the food safefor everyone at the table?

A food you can safely eat might make others sick.


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Infants sick later.

Pregnantwomen

Young children andolder adults

People with weakened immunesystems and individuals withcertain chronic diseases

People with a higher risk for foodborne illness


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Myth 5 sick later.

People never used to get sick from their food.


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Fact 5 sick later.

Many incidents of foodborne illness went undetected in the past.


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Symptoms of sick later.nausea,vomiting,anddiarrhea were often, and still are, blamed on the “flu.”


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More common in foodborne illness: sick later.

Gastrointestinal

Nausea

Vomiting

Diarrhea

More common in flu:

Respiratory

Chest discomfort

Cough

Nasal congestion

Sore throat

Runny or stuffy nose

Foodborne illness vs. flu


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More reasons for foodborne illnesses than in the past ... sick later.

Bacteria have become more potent over the years.


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Our food now travels farther with more chances for contamination.

Still more reasons ...

In days gone by, the chicken served at supper may have been in the hen house at noon!


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Myth 6 contamination.

As long as I left the lid on a food that has sat out too long, it is safe to eat.


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Fact 6 contamination.

Though food may be safe after cooking, it may not be safe later.

Just one bacteria in the food can double in 20 minutes!


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How many bacteria will contamination.grow from one bacterialeft at room temperature for 7 hours?


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2,097,152! contamination.


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Refrigerate contamination.perishable foods within two hours at a refrigerator temperature of 40°F or lower.



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Myth 7 more than

If you let a food set out for more than two hours, you can make it safe by heating it really hot!


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Fact 7 more than

Some bacteria, such as Staphylococcus (staph), produce toxins that are not destroyed by high cooking temperatures.

Image: Content provider: CDC/Matthew J. Arduino, DRPH,Photo credit: Janice Haney Carr



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Myth 8 meaning

If a hamburger is brown in the middle, it is cooked to a safe internal temperature.


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Fact 8 meaning

1 out of 4 hamburgers turns brown before it has been cooked to a safe internal temperature.

http://origin-www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/Thermometers_Are_Key_FactSheet.pdf


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A meaning

B

Which ground beef patty is cookedto a safe internal temperature?

http://origin-www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/Thermometers_Are_Key_FactSheet.pdf


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B meaning

A

This is NOT a safely cooked hamburger. Though brown inside, it is undercooked.

This IS a safely cooked hamburger (internal temperature of 160ºF) even though pink inside.

http://origin-www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/Thermometers_Are_Key_FactSheet.pdf


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Research shows some ground beef patties look done at internal temperaturesas low as 135ºF. A temperature of 160ºF is needed to destroy E. coli.

http://origin-www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/Thermometers_Are_Key_FactSheet.pdf


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The ONLY way to know food internal temperatures

has been cooked to a safe

internal temperature is to use

a food thermometer!


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How to use a food thermometer internal temperatures

  • Wash thermometer with hot soapy water before and after use.

  • Use before the food is expected to be “done.”

  • Place in the thickestpart of the food, not touching bone, fat or gristle.

  • Compare reading to USDA recommended safe minimum internal temperatures.


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USDA recommended safe minimum internal temperatures internal temperatures

Beef, veal, lamb: steaks & roasts - 145°F

Fish: 145°F

Pork: 160°F

Beef, veal, lamb: ground - 160°F

Egg dishes: 160°F

Turkey, chicken & duck: whole, pieces & ground - 165°F


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Food thermometers & thin foods internal temperatures

On an “instant-read” dialthermometer, the probe must be inserted in the side of the food so the entire sensing area (usually 2-3 inches) is positioned through the center of the food.


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Food thermometers & thin foods internal temperatures

When possible, use a digitalthermometer to measure the temperature of a thin food. The sensing area is only ½- to 1-inch long and easier to place in the center of the food.


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Digital and dial thermometers internal temperatures in thin foods

Digital thermometer

Dial thermometer

Photo courtesy of the Nebraska Beef Council


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Myth 9 internal temperatures

Meat and poultry should be washed before cooking.


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Fact 9 internal temperatures

Washing meat and poultry is NOT necessary or recommended.


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Washing increases internal temperaturesthe danger of cross-contamination,spreading bacteriapresent on thesurface of meat and poultry to:

  • ready-to-eat foods

  • kitchen utensils

  • counter surfaces.


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Cooking meat and poultry to the recommended internal temperature will make them safe to eat.


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Myth 10 temperature will make them safe to eat.

We shouldbe scared of eating almost everything!


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Fact 10 temperature will make them safe to eat.

“... the American food supply continues to be among the safest in the world.”

Robert E. Brackett, Ph.D., Director, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, November 15, 2006 http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/t061115a.html


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Proper food temperature will make them safe to eat. handling helpsassure that foodis safe to eat. 4 steps to follow...


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Remember: When in doubt ... temperature will make them safe to eat.

TOSS IT OUT!!!


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Resources used: temperature will make them safe to eat.

Alabama Cooperative Extension System. The Food Spoilers: Bacteria and Viruses. http://www.aces.edu/pubs/docs/H/HE-0654 (Accessed June 15, 2010).

CDC. Food-Related Illness and Death in the United States. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol5no5/mead.htm (Accessed June 21, 2010).

Robert E. Brackett, Ph.D., Director, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, November 15, 2006. http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/t061115a.html (Accessed June 21, 2010).

USDA. “Is it done yet?” http://www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/IsItDoneYet_Magnet.pdf (Accessed June 21, 2010).

USDA. Safe Food Handling – How Temperatures Affect Food. http://www.fsis.usda.gov/factsheets/how_temperatures_affect_food/index.asp (Accessed June 15, 2010).

USDA. Thermometers are Key. http://origin-www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/Thermometers_Are_Key_FactSheet.pdf (Accessed June 21, 2010).

USDA. Why Does USDA Recommend Using a Food Thermometer? http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/thermometer.html (Accessed June 21, 2010).

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Bad Bug Book: Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms and Natural Toxins Handbook – Onset, Duration, and Symptoms of Foodborne Illness. Available at http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodborneIllness/FoodborneIllnessFoodbornePathogensNaturalToxins/BadBugBook/ucm071342.htm (Accessed June 15, 2010).

Source of images: Microsoft Image and Media Library, USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Image Library, CDC image library, original graphics created by UNL Lancaster County Extension Office.


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Thank you to the following people for reviewing this slide set ...

  • Julie Albrecht, Ph.D, R.D.

  • Phil Rooney, Ph.D., CP-FS

  • Cindy Brison, M.S., R.D.

  • Zainab Rida, M.S., R.D.

  • Amy Stalp, Dietetic Student

  • Vicki Jedlicka, Extension Media Assistant


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Extension is a Division of the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln cooperating with the Counties and the United States Department of Agriculture.

University of Nebraska–Lincoln Extension educational programs abide with the nondiscrimination policies of the University of Nebraska–Lincoln and the United States Department of Agriculture.