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Sustainable Operations - Water in the Built Environment. Sustainable Operations Summit 2008 Sarah H. Baker. World View of Water. 0.5%. 2.5% frozen. 97%. World View. For high-income countries, water use is: 30% Agricultural 59% Industrial 11% Domestic.

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sustainable operations water in the built environment

Sustainable Operations- Water in the Built Environment

Sustainable Operations Summit 2008

Sarah H. Baker

world view of water
World View of Water

0.5%

2.5% frozen

97%

world view
World View
  • For high-income countries, water use is:
    • 30% Agricultural
    • 59% Industrial
    • 11% Domestic

Source: World Business Council for Sustainable Development, Water Facts and Trends, 2005.

world view4
World View
  • Industrial Use
    • power plants
    • ore and oil refineries
    • manufacturing plants

1 World Business Council for Sustainable Development, Water Facts and Trends, 2005.

world view5

Per capita, gallons

World View

Source: World Business Council for Sustainable Development, Water Facts and Trends, 2005.

federal government
Federal Government
  • Uses 244-256 billion gallons of water annually (equal to water use of Michigan)
  • Requires 138 billion BTUs of energy to process and use water (98% used to heat water)
  • Could conserve 40% of water—102.4 billion gallons— annually with moderate efforts (enough water for Iowa)

250,000,000,000 gallons

138,000,000,000 BTUs

102,400,000,000 gallons

Source: Federal Energy Management Program

federal directives
Federal Directives
  • EO 13423 - Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy and Transportation Management
    • reduce water consumption intensity through life-cycle cost-effective measures by 2 % annually through the end of fiscal year 2015 (16% total)
  • Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA)
implementation
Implementation
  • Assess and Prioritize
  • Implement stategies through EMS
    • Engineering practices = Changing fixtures
    • Behavioral practices = Changing attitudes
  • Monitor progress
residential water use
Residential Water Use

Source: 1999 Aquacraft, Inc. and American Water Works Association Research Foundation

assess and prioritize
Assess and Prioritize
  • Water audits (10% of buildings/year)
    • Required by EO 13423 Instructions
    • Part of our facilities inspections
    • Use life-cycle cost analysis
  • Outdoor water ~60% of water use
  • Bathroom ~45% of indoor water use
  • Leaks ~6% of water use
implement strategies
Implement Strategies
  • Use national Environmental Management System (EMS) to define Action Plans
  • Continual improvement of performance through EMS feedback loops
outdoor water use
Outdoor Water Use
  • Climate-appropriate landscapes
  • Water-efficient irrigation systems
  • Vehicle wash systems
    • If every car owner in the US who washes a car at home went to a water-recycling car wash for the next wash, the savings would total more than 4 billion gallons
  • Alternate water sources
alternate water sources
Alternate Water Sources
  • Rainwater harvesting system
    • Capture (roof and gutters)
    • Storage (barrels or tanks)
    • Delivery (pipes, pumps, and valves)
  • Details
    • Cost $500 - $10,000+
    • Depends on rainfall and desired use
    • Properly size pipe, tank, and pump
alternate water sources14
Alternate Water Sources

Example:

  • 10” rain/year (NM)
  • 5000 ft2 office
  • 31,000 gallons water/year

Example:

  • 35” rain/year (TX)
  • 5000 ft2 office
  • 109,000 gallons water/year
  • (at 50 gallons per car wash, this is 2180 carwashes!)
engineering practices
Engineering Practices

Fixtures (bathroom)

  • Toilet
  • Low-flow showerheads
  • Faucet aerators
  • Low-flush toilets - 5.4 yrs. cost recovery
  • Displacement device - 1 to 2 gal. per flush
  • Inexpensive
  • Reduce indoor water use by ~6% each
  • Inexpensive
  • Reduces faucet water use by up to 60%
engineering practices16
Engineering Practices

Leak detection

  • Leaks are 5.5% of water use
  • Potential for major property damage
behavioral practices
Behavioral Practices

Indoor water use

behavioral practices18
Behavioral Practices

Outdoor water use