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The Bureaucracy. Recent headlines: Feds took welfare families’ child support HUD not enforcing disabled law. The Bureaucracy.

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the bureaucracy
The Bureaucracy
  • Recent headlines:
  • Feds took welfare families’ child support
  • HUD not enforcing disabled law
the bureaucracy2
The Bureaucracy
  • Have you ever written a computer program? Followed instructions on building a model or setting up a multi-media system? All are like laws in that the application may be different than the original intent.
the bureaucracy3
The Bureaucracy
  • Powers from the President & Congress
  • Original departments
    • State, Treasury, War
  • Public service,
    • Patronage or Spoils system in 19th century
    • Assassination of President Garfield
    • Civil Service reform with Pendleton Act in 1883
the bureaucracy4
The Bureaucracy
  • Woodrow Wilson (1887) and bureaucratic reform
    • Efficient; division of labor
    • Professional training, expertise
    • Top-down management; hierarchy
    • Bottom-up accountability
  • Max Weber and bureaucracy
    • Modern form of control; standard rules
    • Neutral competence or red tape
the bureaucracy5
The Bureaucracy
  • Growth of government with expanded public mission and size of population
    • Role of Science & Technology
    • Response to Business Excess & Failure
    • Belief in Progress
    • Expanding the American dream
    • Entrepreneurial government
the bureaucracy6
The Bureaucracy
  • Executive Office of the President
  • Cabinet departments
  • Independent agencies (e.g. ICC, FCC)
  • Government corporations (e.g. USPS)
  • Advisory committees (e.g. Interior and Klamath River Basin)
  • Congress and the Judiciary
how bureaucracy works
How Bureaucracy Works
  • Authority mostly from Congress
    • Congressional intent
    • Delegation of details; often ambiguous
    • Administrative discretion
  • Report to President & OMB
    • Executive orders (Affirmative Action)
    • OMB and regulatory oversight
  • Congressional oversight & budget
  • Court orders (e.g. ADA & Supreme Court)
  • Responsiveness to the public
  • Too many masters?
agency actions
Agency Actions
  • Rulemaking, like Congress
    • Federal Register and student aid
    • Due process considerations
  • Adjudication, like the courts
    • Interior and water rights
    • NHTSA and Firestone tires
  • Town meetings with citizens
    • Modesto and local response to terrorism
efforts at bureaucratic reform
Efforts at Bureaucratic Reform
  • Civil Service Reform--1880s
  • Budgetary / Management Reform -- 1920s
  • Continuous reform since President Eisenhower
    • budget (ppbs, zbb, etc.)
    • personnel (TQM, Reinventing govt.)
  • Congress approves reorganization
personal observations
Personal Observations
  • Reform as business, Congress, courts
  • Bureaucracy and representation
  • Efficiency vs. effectiveness
    • An efficient DOD?
  • Implementation -- or the relationship between thought and action
  • Bureaucracy as partisan football? scapegoat?