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MS1 Module 2 Major hardware components of a computer Types of computers Storage Technology Input/Output Technology Multimedia Software Types Development Processing & Memory Devices Central Processing Unit (CPU) Control Unit - controls and coordinates other components of a computer.

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MS1 Module 2

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ms1 module 2
MS1 Module 2
  • Major hardware components of a computer
  • Types of computers
  • Storage Technology
  • Input/Output Technology
  • Multimedia
  • Software
    • Types
    • Development
central processing unit cpu
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  • Control Unit - controls and coordinates other components of a computer.
  • Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU) - performs the arithmetic and logical operations on data.
primary storage
Primary storage
  • Primary storage is used to store program instructions and data, for example, RAM and ROM.
  • RAM is volatile while ROM is not. Program instructions and data stored in RAM will be lost when the computer’s power is switched off.
primary storage7
Primary storage
  • A bit (binary digit) is the smallest unit of storage.
  • A byte (made up of eight bits) is used to represent a single character.
types of computers
Types of Computers
  • Mainframe - large computers with a large amount of RAM in order to handle massive amounts of data and processes
  • Minicomputer - usually have more RAM and faster CPUs than microcomputers in order to serve several users simultaneously
types of computers10
Types of computers
  • Microcomputers:
    • most of them use Intel’s x86 family of microprocessors
  • 8088 XT
  • 80286
  • 80386
  • 80486
  • Pentium
  • Pentium II
  • MMX (multi media extensions)
  • Pentium III & IV
a typical microcomputer motherboard
A Typical Microcomputer (motherboard)
  • RAM - Random Access Memory slots
  • ROM - Read Only Memory
  • Expansion Slots
  • CPU socket
  • Onboard Sound/LAN
  • Onboard Video
processor technology trends
Processor Technology Trends
  • Client/server Computing - Processing is performed partly at the workstation (client) and partly at the main computer (server).
processor technology trends15
Processor Technology Trends
  • Parallel processing - With the advance in technology, microprocessors, processing of more than one instruction at a time by using multiple processors at the same time
types of computers17
Types of computers
  • Supercomputers:
    • Very powerful computers for extremely complex computations
    • Faster than the fastest mainframes
    • Make use of parallel processing
secondary storage
Secondary Storage
  • Magnetic Tape
  • Magnetic Disk
    • Hard Disk
    • Mirroring
    • RAID
    • Zip Drive
secondary storage19
Secondary Storage
  • Floppy Disks
    • 3 1/2”
  • Optical Disks
    • CD-ROM
    • WORM
  • Data can be human or machine readable
  • Data entry converts human readable data into machine-readable form
  • Data input transfers machine-readable data into the system
  • Source data automation
input batch online
Input Batch & Online
  • Batch - Data are captured in source documents, then input and stored on transaction files. Processing of data occurs some time later.
    • Key to tape/disk
input batch online24
Input Batch & Online
  • Online - Data are input and stored into the computer when they are available. No source documents are used
    • Touch Screen
    • Light Pens
    • Bar Code Readers
    • Mouse
      • Track Ball
source data automation sda
Source Data Automation (SDA)
  • Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR)
  • Optical Character Recognition (OCR)
    • Bar Coding
  • Voice Input
  • Impact Printers
    • Character
    • Dot Matrix
  • Non Impact Printers
    • Thermal
    • Laser
    • Ink Jet
  • The integration of two or more types of media technologies such as text, graphics, sound, video, or animation into a computer application
  • Mostly used in training and entertainment
  • Kiosks (drivers license, internet)
  • System Software
    • Operating Systems
      • Dos, UNIX or LINUX, Windows 95, 98, NT, ME, XP, Mac OS X
  • Application Software
figure 4 2 operating system as interface between application software and hardware
Figure 4.2: Operating system as interface between application software and hardware
enterprise resource planning erp
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
  • ERP software: a set of integrated programs that manage a company’s critical business operations
  • ERP software can support global operations – so it must support many languages, legal entities, and currencies
benefits of erp systems
Benefits of ERP Systems
  • Eliminate inefficient systems
  • Improved data access for decision making
  • Facilitate the adoption of improved work processes
  • Supply chain management
the downside of of erp systems
The Downside of of ERP Systems
  • Costly
  • Changed business processes
  • Employee resistance
programming languages
Programming Languages
  • Commands and statements combined according to a particular syntax
  • Different languages have different characteristics
second generation languages
Second-Generation Languages
  • Assembly languages
  • Assemblers
  • Symbolic language
third generation languages
Third-Generation Languages
  • Greater use of symbolic code
  • Statements are more English-like
  • Easier to learn
  • Resulting program slower & don’t use RAM as efficiently
  • Examples: BASIC, COBOL, C, C++, FORTRAN
fourth generation languages
Fourth-Generation Languages
  • 4GLs
  • Programs tell the CPU the desired results, not how to get them
  • GUI (Graphical User Interface)
  • Examples: PowerBuilder, SQL, CSS
.NET Example
  • Java Example
  • Scratch
  • Object-oriented programming combines data and procedures into units called objects. Objects work together within an application (as opposed to an organization of tasks or procedures).
    • Examples: Java, .NET
object oriented programming languages
Object-Oriented Programming Languages
  • Objects include data & actions. Objects interact by passing messages
  • Encapsulation: group items into an object
  • Polymorphism: One procedure can work with multiple objects.
  • Inheritance: an object in a particular class gets attributes of that class.
selecting a programming language
Selecting a Programming Language
  • Trade-offs of language characteristics, cost, control & complexity
  • Assembly language programs are fast & efficient & offer the programmer fine-grained control over the hardware
  • Third and fourth-generation languages are easier to learn & use
development issues trends
Development Issues & Trends
  • Open source software/programming languages: freely available and modifiable
    • Linux, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, MySQL, PostreSQL
  • Outsourcing of software development
  • Agile Software Development

Older methodologies: (SDLC, RUP-Rational Unified Process, Test-driven development)