Models, Gaming, and Simulation - Session 9. Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C 4 I). PURPOSE: Consider how C 4 I (especially C 2 ) can be modeled in a combat simulation. Topics. Definitions Command and Control The Process Modeling C2
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Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C4I)
PURPOSE: Consider how C4 I (especially C2) can be modeled in a combat simulation.Topics
NOTE: This is a behavioral approach to C4 I definition; other, more technical approaches view C4 I as the structure and equipment by which the commander exercises command and control.
The Conceptual C2 Process Model (one version):
U.S. Army's Battle Planning Process (”Military Decision-Making Process")*
*US Army Field Manual 101-5, Staff Org. & Opns.
Mission and Intent
COURSE OF ACTION ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON
Wargame each COA
Recommend a COA
COURSE OF ACTION DEVELOPMENT
Relative force ratios
Array initial forces
Develop Scheme of Mvr
Determine C2 means and maneuver control measures
DECISION, PLAN PREPARATION, AND EXECUTION
*Artificial Intelligence Handbook, Vol III
Y > 80%
50%< Y < 70%
Y < 50%
X > 80%
70% < X < 80%
50% < X < 70%
20% < X < 50%
X < 20%
IF ((main enemy attack has been detected) and
(counter-attack force is ready))
THEN (launch counter-attack)
Now let’s look at a possible way to model the intelligence process
NAI / TAI
“Enemy is conducting his main attack in TAI 43”Eagle’s Intelligence
Each unit keeps a "Situation Map", i.e., a list of detected units and their estimated locations as provided by its own sensors or reports from subordinates,its higher headquarters or a supporting intelligence unit.
The unit estimates the total number of resolution units it has found, fuzing multiple detections (sometimes called "second-order fusion")
It estimates the organizational structure of the resolution units, perhaps considering communications nodes as headquarters, so that it can provide an intelligence estimate of the form: "We are opposed by a mechanized infantry division with one tank-heavy brigade in reserve and two mech-heavy brigades attacking" (sometimes called "analysis").
NOTE: This step is a very difficult problem, and not too many (if any) models represent it well. The algorithm could use a doctrinal or situational template of the enemy and try to fill roles in the template with detected units. The template which is best matched by the detected units is chosen as the best estimate of the enemy situation.
The unit reports its intelligence estimate to its higher headquarters, its subordinate headquarters, and (if it is an intelligence unit), its supported headquarters.