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Girding for War: The North & The South 1861-1865

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Girding for War: The North & The South 1861-1865. The American Pageant Chapter 21. Pres. of Disunited States. Lincoln’s inaugural: no war unless South started it, seces-sion was physically impractical. How could North/South solve problems of sharing debt & territories, FSL?

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pres of disunited states
Pres. of Disunited States
  • Lincoln’s inaugural: no war unless South started it, seces-sion was physically impractical.
  • How could North/South solve problems of sharing debt & territories, FSL?
  • Split US could not defend Monroe Doct. against Europe.
s c assails fort sumter
S.C. Assails Fort Sumter
  • Federal forts in South, not debt or territories became issue.
  • Fort Sumter in Charleston was most important remaining in Federal control, but needed supplies by April, 1861.
  • Lincoln’s dilemma: let fort fall without fight, or risk war?
s c assails fort sumter 2
S.C. Assails Fort Sumter (2)
  • Middle position: notify SC that sending provisions, not reinforcements, Union naval force began trip.
  • South regarded this as aggression, opened fire on fort on April 12, 1861. Fort surrendered, no lives lost.
s c assails fort sumter 3
S.C. Assails Fort Sumter (3)
  • Attack provoked North to fight: Lincoln called for 75,000 militia, ordered blockade of Southern seaports.
  • Call for troops provoked South, VA, AR, TN & NC join Confederacy, capital moved to Richmond, VA.
border blood
Border Blood
  • Crucial border slave states (MO, KY, MD, DE, later WV) may have seceded had North been aggressor, would have doubled manufacturing capability of South.
  • Lincoln declared martial law in MD to protect DC.
border blood 2
Border Blood (2)
  • Sent Union soldiers to western VA and MO to fight with local unionists in local civil wars.
  • To satisfy border states, But-ternut region, Lincoln pro-claimed initially that goal was not to free blacks – publicly war was for union only.
border blood 3
Border Blood (3)
  • In OK most of 5 Civilized Tribes sided with South, Plains Indians with North.
  • In some cases, brothers fought on opposing sides. Mountain whites of South provided 50,000 Union troops, border states sent 300,000 to South.
balance of forces
Balance of Forces

Southern Strengths:

  • Fighting defensive battle, Union had to conquer South.
  • Higher morale initially.
  • More talented military officers (Lee, Jackson).
  • Southern men better soldiers.
balance of forces 2
Balance of Forces (2)

Southern Weaknesses:

  • Few factories: had enough weapons but ran low of shoes, uniforms, blankets.
  • Transportation: could not move supplies (e.g. food) well.
  • Economy weaker than North.
balance of forces 3
Balance of Forces (3)

Northern Strengths:

  • Economy: 3/4 of wealth & RR.
  • Superior navy: controlled sea, allowed North to trade grain for arms with other nations, blockade South.
  • More manpower: 22M to 9M, growth from immigration.
balance of forces 4
Balance of Forces (4)

Northern Weaknesses:

  • Northern men less ready to be soldiers.
  • Less capable military leaders.
  • Evaluation: South had reasonable opportunity to win.
dethroning king cotton
Dethroning King Cotton
  • South counted on foreign intervention – ruling class of Europe preferred South’s aristocratic social order.
  • But masses of England wanted end to slavery, tied government hands.
dethroning king cotton 2
Dethroning King Cotton (2)
  • Yet 75% of Britain cotton sup-ply came from South, wouldn’t they be forced to help?
  • Very productive years of 1857-60 produced cotton surpluses in Britain.
  • Unemployed English helped by US food/cotton deliveries.
dethroning king cotton 215
Dethroning King Cotton (2)
  • South got some cotton through blockade.
  • Egypt & India increased output of cotton.
  • Actually, Britain ended up relying on Northern grain & corn more than cotton due to bad British harvests.
decisiveness of diplomacy
Decisiveness of Diplomacy
  • Late 1861: Union warship stopped British steamer Trent and forcibly removed Confederate diplomats.
  • Britain prepared for war, Lincoln released prisoners (“One war at a time”).
decisiveness of diplomacy 2
Decisiveness of Diplomacy (2)
  • 2nd crises with Britain developed over Confederate warships built in Britain, e.g. the Alabama.
  • Alabama captured over 60 northern commercial ships, diverted Union naval strength, finally sunk.
decisiveness of diplomacy 3
Decisiveness of Diplomacy (3)
  • Britain outlawed practice, but some ships still built, captured over 250 Northern commercial ships.
  • Northerners talked of revenge by taking Canada after war.
3 foreign flare ups
3 Foreign Flare-Ups
  • (1) 1863: 3rd US-British crisis instigated by Laird Rams.
  • Could be used by South to destroy US warships, would have brought war with Britain.
  • US threatened war, London relented, bought for own navy.
foreign flare ups 2
Foreign Flare-Ups (2)
  • (2) Confederates used Canada as base for raids, angry Irish-Americans responded in kind.
  • (3) Napoleon III gambled on collapse of Union, violated Monroe Doct. by taking Mexico. After Union victory he abandoned puppet gov’t.
davis vs lincoln
Davis vs. Lincoln
  • Confederate gov’t founded by secessionist/states’ rights sentiments, had fatal problems attempting to fight war.
  • Pres. Davis often could not get states to commit troops outside their borders, unable to effectively lead Confederacy.
davis vs lincoln 2
Davis vs. Lincoln (2)
  • Lincoln had smaller problems due to long-established and financially stable gov’t.
  • He was more flexible than Davis, able to interpret and lead public opinion.
  • Was charitable to South and political enemies.
limitation on liberties
Limitation on Liberties
  • Lincoln took liberties with Constitution in order to save Union. Congress accepted as necessary for crisis.
  • Congress not in session when war started, Lincoln acted unilaterally to…
limitation on liberties 2
Limitation on Liberties (2)

1. Proclaimed naval blockade.

2. Increased size of federal army.

3. Directed Sec. of Treasury to give $2M to private citizens for military purposes.

4. Suspended habeas corpus to arrest anti-Unionists.

limitation on liberties 3
Limitation on Liberties (3)
  • Lincoln also arranged “supervised” voting in border states and suspended certain newspapers, arresting editors.
  • Davis less able to exercise powers due to states’ rights.
volunteers draftees
Volunteers & Draftees
  • 1863: Volunteers ran out, Congress passed conscription law.
  • Rich could hire substitutes or purchase exemption for $300.
  • Draft resulted in riots (NY Irish), protests.
volunteers draftees 2
Volunteers & Draftees (2)
  • Over 90% of Union troops were volunteers, and fed/state/ local gov’ts offered bounties.
  • Many “bounty boys” deserted, and then re-enlisted elsewhere to pocket more.
  • Both armies suffered many desertions (200,000 for Union).
volunteers draftees 3
Volunteers & Draftees (3)
  • April, 1862: South forced to conscript almost a year before North, took men 17-50.
  • Southern draft also benefited rich: could hire substitute, owner of 20 or more slaves was exempt.
economic stresses of war
Economic Stresses of War
  • North increased taxes on tobacco/alcohol, began low income tax, raised millions.
  • After Southern reps left, Congress raised tariff rates moderately – identified Republican party with protective tariff, industrialists.
economic stresses of war 2
Economic Stresses of War (2)
  • North also issued paper money, inadequately supported by gold so value fluctuated along with Union fortunes.
  • Biggest money raiser was borrowing: raised $2B through bonds.
economic stresses of war 3
Economic Stresses of War (3)
  • 1863: Congress creates National Banking System to establish standard bank-note currency.
  • South had it much worse: Union blockade reduced customs duties, but did raise $400M in bonds.
economic stresses of war 4
Economic Stresses of War (4)
  • Southern states’ righters opposed to heavy taxation, limited tax collection.
  • Confederates forced to print money: 9,000% inflation by end of war, compared to 80% for Union.
north s economic boom
North’s Economic Boom
  • North emerged even more prosperous after war.
  • Protective tariff, inflation helped factories.
  • War bred millionaire class.
  • Many Northerners defrauded gov’t: blind horses, cardboard shoes, “shoddy millionaires.”
north s economic boom 2
North’s Economic Boom (2)
  • New machinery increased production even though war took away labor.
  • (1) Sewing machine helped make uniforms, shoes, led to standard-sized clothing.
  • (2) Mechanical reapers produced surpluses of grain.
north s economic boom 3
North’s Economic Boom (3)
  • Oil discovery led “59ers” to PA, new petroleum industry.
  • Gold, draft, & Homestead Act of 1862 led 300,000 west.
  • Shipping was only industry to suffer setback due to Confed-erate commerce-raiders.
north s economic boom 4
North’s Economic Boom (4)
  • Departing soldiers left oppor-tunities for women, especially “government girls,” sewing industry.
  • 400 women involved in war posing as men, others as spies.
  • Blackwell, Barton, Dix, Tompkins developed nursing.
crushed cotton kingdom
Crushed Cotton Kingdom
  • South had 30% of wealth in 1860, only 12% in 1870.
  • Per capita income went from 2/3 of North to 2/5.
  • Supplies such as RR tracks, dishes, pins were scarce.
  • Southern women took pride in avoiding silks & satins.