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Framework to Reduce Traffic Congestion & Improve Air Quality in Atlanta. Strategic Research for the 2000 Clean Air Campaign: Strategic Summary and Status Report. Sponsored By: The Georgia Department of Transportation and The U.S. Federal Highway Administration Prepared By:

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framework to reduce traffic congestion improve air quality in atlanta

Framework to Reduce Traffic Congestion & Improve Air Quality in Atlanta

Strategic Research for the 2000 Clean Air Campaign: Strategic Summary and Status Report

Sponsored By:

The Georgia Department of Transportation and The U.S. Federal Highway Administration

Prepared By:

Wirthlin Worldwide for the Southern Coalition for Advanced Transportation (SCAT)

December 2000

W I R T H L I N W O R L D W I D E

summary of findings
Summary of Findings
  • GREAT SUCCESS in generating advertising awareness
  • But, the motivating, emotional payoff (greater control, less stress) not coming through
  • While behavior has changed among some sub-groups, not yet sufficient to register among the whole population
  • For the advertising to have its fullest impact, we need to explore ways to strengthen the emotional communication.
positioning
Positioning
  • Because of the barriers regarding alternative forms of transportation – “I am dependent on others” -- the debate and communications should reframe.
  • This reframing stresses that alternative forms of transportation lead to being in control. This emotion serves as a way through which commuters and businesses can activate change and a way in which they would personally benefit.
    • For commuters, the benefits center on less stress and having time to do things that are important to them.
    • For businesses, the benefits center on increased productivity/better quality of life and improved morale/less stress for employees.
objectives
Objectives
  • Measure attitudes and claimed behavioral changes
  • Look for increases pointing to use of alternative transportation (carpooling, public transportation, telecommuting, trip-chaining)
  • Assess influence of advertising on “Core”, “Anti”, and “Swing” residents
target transportation groups
Target Transportation Groups

CORE (21%) – This group uses alternative transportation much more frequently than Atlantans on the whole. This segment tends to be lower income, single, younger, and contains a large proportion of minorities.

ANTI (41%) –This group drives alone most often, both for commuting and running errands, and seldom uses alternative transportation. Members of this group tend to be middle-aged, white, with a higher income.

SWING (39%) –This group is white and higher income like the Anti group, but contains more homemakers and retirees. These Atlantans drive alone less often than the Anti group, but are only slightly more likely to use alternative transportation.

Based off November 2000 survey/ n=600

advertising and research timeline
Advertising and Research Timeline

Advertising

Start – 7/3

June 26-30

600 interviews

September 12-17

600 interviews

November 13-16

600 interviews

Pre-Campaign

Mid-Campaign

(9 weeks)

“Post”-Campaign

(19 weeks)

advertising evaluation measures
Advertising Evaluation Measures
  • Hierarchy of Effects
    • A commonly accepted model for the way in which consumers absorb advertising information
  • Consumers must ascend a hierarchy through which they:

develop interest

accrue knowledge

develop desire

act

become aware

Awareness

Unaided awareness

Aided awareness

Interest/Knowledge

Recall of messages

Rating on specific attributes

Attitudes

Desire

Intermediate

Behaviors

(i.e., pick up MARTA schedule)

Action

Reduce SOV use

Increase use of

alternatives

emotional motivators
Emotional Motivators
  • In control
  • Stress reduction
  • More productivity
unaided advertising awareness
Unaided Advertising Awareness

Unaided advertising awareness of public transportation and carpooling ads has increased significantly. Recall of ads regarding the problem (pollution, traffic congestion) is still much higher than the solution (public transportation, carpooling).

Wave 1

Wave 2

Wave 3

Air Quality/Pollution

Traffic Congestion

Public Transportation

Carpooling

Telecommuting

Reduced base: Recall quality of life advertising (June n= 274; September n=267; November n=259)

aided advertising awareness
– % Who Saw/Read/Heard Advertising –Aided Advertising Awareness

When aided with a list of transportation solutions, claimed awareness of advertising increased significantly.

Wave 1

Wave 2

Wave 3

Public Transportation

Carpooling

Telecommuting

advertising content recall related
Advertising Content Recall: Related

There is a significant increase in the number of respondents playing back alternative transportation as the content of the advertising, even since the 2nd Wave, in September.

Encouraging Alternative Transportation (NET)

Carpooling

Public transportation

Telecommuting

Pollution/environmental factors

Convenient/efficient

Reduced base: Those who claim to recall seeing transit, telecommuting or carpooling ads (wave 1 n=493, wave 2 n=544 , wave 3 n=552)

advertising content recall unrelated
Advertising Content Recall: Unrelated

There is less playback of ads not directly related to the Clean Air Campaign.

MARTA specified

Routes/traffic related

Price/cost issues

Other

Reduced base: Those who claim to recall seeing transit, telecommuting or carpooling ads (wave 1 n=493, wave 2 n=544 , wave 3 n=552)

unaided advertising awareness african americans
Unaided Advertising Awareness – African Americans

Mirroring the total market, unaided recall of traffic congestion and public transportation has significantly increased, however, the issue of air quality has not resonated with group.

Significant change from the 1st wave (at the 95% confidence level)

Reduce base: Recall quality of life advertising (Wave 1n=49, Wave 2 n=55, Wave 3 n=53)

Q: What was the issue that you saw, read, or heard advertised?

HEADFIRST MARKET RESEARCH

aided advertising awareness african americans
Aided Advertising Awareness – African Americans

When aided with a list of transportation solutions, African American ad awareness for carpooling and telecommuting increased significantly from wave 1.

– % Who Saw/Read/Heard Advertising –

Significantly higher than in the 1st wave (at the 95% confidence level)

Q: Please tell me if you recall seeing, hearing or reading any advertising in the past six months about:

HEADFIRST MARKET RESEARCH

advertising content recall african american
Advertising Content Recall – African American

There was significant increase in the number of African American respondents playing back alternative transportation as the content of the advertising.

Encouraging Alternative Transportation (NET)

Carpooling

Public transportation

Telecommuting

Pollution / Environmental

MARTA related

Routes/traffic related

Reduced base: Those who claim to recall seeing transit, telecommuting or carpooling ads (wave 1 n=102, wave 2 n=121, wave 3 n=116)

Q: Being as specific as you can, what do you remember about the advertising you saw? That is, can you describe what was said or shown in the advertising for me?

HEADFIRST MARKET RESEARCH

wirthlin model for motivating behavior
Wirthlin Model for Motivating Behavior

develop interest

accrue knowledge

develop desire

act

become aware

“People are persuaded rationally, but motivated emotionally”

are atlantans understanding the emotional payoff
Are Atlantans Understanding the Emotional Payoff?

“The one where the lady in the car was crying and all her make-up smeared all over her face because of the traffic. How do you deal with Atlanta traffic?”

No payoff

Same commercial

“It was a woman dealing with stress and she ends up having a nervous breakdown. At first she has all this make-up on and then after the breakdown she has mascara all over her face…Why stress yourself out or go through all this, when you could carpool.”

Payoff

advertising content recall specific
Advertising Content Recall: Specific

Wave 2

Wave 3

Recall of Specific Commercials

Recall of Emotional Payoff

attitudes improved slightly with four statements showing a significant lift
Attitudes Improved Slightly, with Four Statements Showing a Significant Lift
  • People who use public transportation, carpool or telecommuting enjoy more freedom and independence in their lives than those who drive alone in their car
  • Using public transportation or carpooling would give me an opportunity to socialize with other people
  • If people used public transportation, carpooling or telecommuting instead of driving alone in their cars, they would have more peace of mind.
  • If I took public transportation, carpooled or telecommuted instead of driving alone in my own car, it would give me more control over my time
significant increases among the unaided ad aware
Significant Increases among the Unaided Ad Aware
  • People who use public transportation, carpool or telecommuting enjoy more freedom and independence in their lives than those who drive alone in their car
  • Using public transportation or carpooling would give me an opportunity to socialize with other people
  • If people used public transportation, carpooling or telecommuting instead of driving alone in their cars, they would have more peace of mind.
  • If I took public transportation, carpooled or telecommuted instead of driving alone in my own car, it would give me more control over my time
  • If fewer people drove their cars, people would be less likely to experience road rage
  • People who telecommute, use public transportation or carpool feel a sense of accomplishment.
attitudes about transportation african americans
Attitudes About Transportation – African Americans

There has been some positive change in opinion of public transportation during the campaign. However, almost half of African Americans still feel they would like to help reduce traffic congestion, but they still do not know what to do.

HEADFIRST MARKET RESEARCH

commuting methods weekly
Commuting Methods Weekly

– Average Percentage of Trips Per Week –

Wave 1

Wave 2

Wave 3

Drive Alone

Telecommute

Car/Van Pool

Public Transport

Reduced base: Those employed (June n= 448; September n=443; November n=475)

commuting methods used in last year
Commuting Methods Used in Last Year

– Percent of Sample Using Method –

Wave 1

Wave 2

Wave 3

Telecommuted

Car/Van Pool

Public Transportation

Among the unaided ad aware, use of public transportation in the last year went up significantly from June (19%) to November (27%). However, telecommuting went down in this same group (from 48% to 40%).

Reduced base: Those employed (June n= 448; September n=443; November n=475)

transportation methods for errands weekly
Transportation Methods for Errands – Weekly

– Average Percentage of Trips Per Week –

Wave 1

Wave 2

Wave 3

Drive Alone in Car

Trip Chaining

Car/Van Pool

Public Transportation

transportation methods for errands used in past year
Transportation Methods for Errands: Used in Past Year

Wave 1

Wave 2

Wave 3

Trip Chaining

Use Internet Instead of Car

Car/Van Pool

how about intermediate behaviors
How About Intermediate Behaviors?
  • Pick up a MARTA Schedule
  • Call 1-87-Ridefind
  • Ask your boss about telecommuting
  • Combine multiple errands into one trip
  • Use technology such as the internet instead of driving your car
actions taken considered by segments
Actions Taken/Considered by Segments
  • There is a significant increase in Atlantans considering calling 1-87-Ridefind (from 2% in June to 5% in November). This is due to the “Anti” and “Core” groups, while the “Swing” group has not moved.

W3-W1 Difference

Wave 1 (%)

Wave 2 (%)

Wave 3 (%)

Anti 0 1 4 +4

Swing 3 2 3 0

Core 3 3 9 +6

  • The “Core” group has also become significantly more likely to have taken the action of asking their boss about telecommuting (17% in November, compared to 9% in June).
significantly higher action among unaided ad aware
Significantly Higher Action Among Unaided Ad Aware
  • Picking up a schedule for MARTA
  • Combining multiple errands into one trip
  • Using technology such as the internet or computers rather than driving your car
work related travel african americans
Work-Related TravelAfrican Americans

There has been no significant change in behavior regarding commuting habits.

Q: Thinking about your commute to & from work… about how many total times last week did you… to & from work?

HEADFIRST MARKET RESEARCH

commuting methods used in last year african american
Commuting Methods Used in Last Year – African American

No significant changes in behavior.

Significantly higher

Q: Thinking back to the last year, have you ever… to work?

HEADFIRST MARKET RESEARCH

non work related travel errands african americans
Non-Work Related Travel (Errands)African Americans

African Americans typically run more errands weekly. Directionally the number of errands have decreased.

* Mean values

HEADFIRST MARKET RESEARCH

transportation methods for errands weekly african americans
Transportation Methods for Errands: Weekly – African Americans

There were no significant changes in behavior although the number of errands has decreased.

Drive alone in your car*

Carpool or ride with others*

Use public transportation or transit*

* Mean values

Q: Thinking about these errands, about how many times did you… to do those errands?

HEADFIRST MARKET RESEARCH

transportation methods for errands used in the last year aa
Transportation Methods for Errands: Used in the Last Year- AA

No significant changes in behavior.

Combined multiple errands into one trip

Used the internet to shop and gather information instead of making a trip in your car

Car or van pooled for your errands

Q: Thinking back to the last year, have you ever… ?

HEADFIRST MARKET RESEARCH

actions taken considered african american
Actions Taken/Considered - African American
  • Overall, there has been no significant change in behavior regarding the use of alternate forms of transportation.
    • Directionally there has been less of a tendency to pick up a MARTA schedule and combine multiple errands into one trip
  • African Americans that have unaided advertising awareness noted a significant change in considering and asking their boss about telecommuting

HEADFIRST MARKET RESEARCH

internet access african americans
Internet Access – African Americans

Almost three-quarters of African Americans in the sample have internet access with the majority having access both at home and at work.

HEADFIRST MARKET RESEARCH

strategic implications for african american community
Strategic Implications for African American Community
  • In order to bring about behavioral change:
    • Increase the penetration of the advertising awareness within the African American community
    • Target communications to this segment that in order to stabilize this portion of the core users and bring in those in the swing group
    • Optimize current communications to speak to combining or minimizing errands as a way for individuals to help alleviate congestion
    • Offer additional alternatives to help reduce traffic congestion and improve air quality
    • Focus efforts to target this consumer for telecommuting and use of technology in lieu of driving a car

HEADFIRST MARKET RESEARCH

recommendations
Recommendations
  • Media weight levels are sufficient
  • Problem is communicated, but solution needs to be stronger
  • Creative needs to leverage emotional payoff more effectively.
  • New creative (television, radio, and print) should be comprehensively tested before, during, and after production
framework to reduce traffic congestion improve air quality in atlanta42

Framework to Reduce Traffic Congestion & Improve Air Quality in Atlanta

Strategic Research for the 2000 Clean Air Campaign: Strategic Summary and Status Report

Sponsored By:

The Georgia Department of Transportation and The U.S. Federal Highway Administration

Prepared By:

Wirthlin Worldwide for the Southern Coalition for Advanced Transportation (SCAT)

December 2000

W I R T H L I N W O R L D W I D E

profile of respondents
Profile of Respondents

Employment Status

Work Location

Full-time

Inside the I-285 perimeter

Part-time

Student

Outside the I-285 perimeter

Homemaker

Retired

Not employed

DK/refused

Disabled

Income

Education

$0-30K

Less than high school

$30-50K

High school graduate

$50-70K

Technical/vocational

$70-100K

Some college

$100K or more

College graduate

Refused

Post-graduate

profile of respondents44
Profile of Respondents

Marital Status

Have Children Living at Home

Married

Yes, under 18

Separated

Yes, college age

Divorced

Single, never been married

Both

Widowed

No

Refused

Race/Ethnicity

Age

Caucasian

18-29

African American

30-39

Native American

40-49

Asian American

50-59

Hispanic American

60-69

Other

70 and older

Refused

Refused

profile of respondents45
Profile of Respondents

Internet Access

Where?(n=486)

No

Yes

Internet access has gone up slightly (from 77% to 81%) since June.

attitudes about transportation
Attitudes About Transportation

Atlantans were asked to what extent they agreed with the following statements regarding alternative transportation.

If fewer people drove their cars, people would be less likely to experience "road rage" and driving would be safer.

If I telecommute, use public transportation or carpool, it will be less stressful than driving my own car.

I could save money by using public transportation, carpooling or telecommuting instead of driving alone in my car.

Using public transportation or carpooling would give me an opportunity to socialize with other people.

I wish I could reduce traffic congestion, but I do not know how I can help.

If people used public transportation, carpooling or telecommuting instead of driving alone in their cars, they would have more peace of mind.

If I took public transportation, carpooled or telecommuted instead of driving my own car, I would have more money to spend on other things.

Using public transportation, carpooling or telecommuting could actually save me time compared to driving alone in my car

People who telecommute, use public transportation or carpool feel a sense of accomplishment

I could be more productive if I used an alternative form of transportation besides driving alone in my own car.

If I took public transportation, carpooled or telecommuted instead of driving alone in my own car, it would give me more control over my time.

People who use public transportation, carpool or telecommuting enjoy more freedom and independence in their lives than those who drive alone in their car

attitudes about transportation47
Attitudes About Transportation

Attitudes about alternative transportation are becoming slightly more favorable.

– Mean score on a 7-point scale –

W3-W1

Difference

Wave 1

Wave 2

Wave 3

If fewer people drove their cars, people would be less likely to experience "road rage" and driving would be safer.

If I telecommute, use public transportation or carpool, it will be less stressful than driving my own car.

I could save money by using public transportation, carpooling or telecommuting instead of driving alone in my car.

Using public transportation or carpooling would give me an opportunity to socialize with other people.

I wish I could reduce traffic congestion, but I do not know how I can help.

If people used public transportation, carpooling or telecommuting instead of driving alone in their cars, they would have more peace of mind.

If I took public transportation, carpooled or telecommuted instead of driving my own car, I would have more money to spend on other things.

People who telecommute, use public transportation or carpool feel a sense of accomplishment

Using public transportation, carpooling or telecommuting could actually save me time compared to driving alone in my car

I could be more productive if I used an alternative form of transportation besides driving alone in my own car.

People who use public transportation, carpool or telecommuting enjoy more freedom and independence in their lives than those who drive alone in their car

If I took public transportation, carpooled or telecommuted instead of driving alone in my own car, it would give me more control over my time.

5.6

4.7

4.8

4.5

4.74.4

4.5

4.3

3.7

3.5

3.3

3.3

5.8

4.8

4.7

4.7

4.74.6

4.4

4.4

3.8

3.7

3.4

3.5

5.8

4.8

4.8

4.8

4.8

4.7

4.5

4.5

4.0

3.7

3.7

3.5

+0.2

+0.1

0

+0.3

+0.1+0.3

0

+0.2

+0.3+0.2

+0.4

+0.2

transportation methods for errands past year unaided awareness
Transportation Methods for ErrandsPast Year – Unaided Awareness

– Trip Chaining –

Wave 1

Wave 2

Wave 3

Unaided Ad Awareness

Not Aware

transportation methods for errands past year unaided awareness49
Transportation Methods for ErrandsPast Year – Unaided Awareness

– Car or Van Pooled –

Wave 1

Wave 2

Wave 3

Unaided Ad Awareness

Not Aware

transportation methods for errands past year unaided awareness50
Transportation Methods for ErrandsPast Year – Unaided Awareness

– Internet –

Wave 1

Wave 2

Wave 3

Unaided Ad Awareness

Not Aware

gap by unaided ad awareness example
Gap by Unaided Ad Awareness: Example

W1

W2

W3

W3-W1

Unaided Ad Awareness

Unaided Ad Awareness

Unaided Ad Awareness

Gap

(Difference)

Example Behavior

Yes

No

Yes

No

Gap

Yes

No

Gap

Difference

Pick up a schedule for MARTA

Taken this action 15 17 -2 20 13 +7 26 12 +14 +16

Considered this action 11 7 +4 7 5 +2 7 8 -1 -5

In general, those who recall on an unaided basis ads relating to quality of life in Atlanta are more likely to use alternative transportation. We are calling this the “Gap by Unaided Ad Awareness.” Where this “Gap” has increased over time, it is an indication the ads are having a positive effect on those who remember them.

actions taken considered unaided ad awareness gap
Actions Taken/Considered: Unaided Ad Awareness Gap

Those who remember the ads are more likely to have taken the following actions: picking up a MARTA schedule, trip-chaining, and using the Internet rather than driving their car.

Unaided Ad Awareness Gap

W3-W1Difference

Wave 1

Wave 2

Wave 3

Pick up a schedule for MARTA

Taken this action -2 +7 +14 +16

Considered this action +4 +2 -1 -5

Call 1-87-Ridefind

Taken this action 0 0 +3 +3

Considered this action 0 +1 -1 -1

Ask your boss about telecommuting

Taken this action +6 +4 +10 +4

Considered this action +1 +7 +6 +5

Combine multiple errands into one trip

Taken this action +9 +10 +16 +7

Considered this action -2 +1 -3 -1

Use technology such as the internet or computers rather than driving your car

Taken this action +10 +15 +17 +7

Considered this action 0 +4 -4 -4

who is the core group
Who is the Core Group?

Core

Avg.

39% Uses P/T to and from work last week 9%

24% Did not drive alone to/from work last week 12%

50% Carpooled to work last year 34%

53% Telecommuted last year 31%

32% Telecommuted last week 19%

92% Employed 80%

44% Under age 35 36%

45% Under $40,000 HH income 28%

51% Non-white 28%

37% Single 24%

55% Work inside I-285 38%

Based off November 2000 survey/ n=600

message tests among those who recall ads
Message Tests Among Those Who Recall Ads
  • If fewer people drove their cars, people would be less likely to experience “road rage” and would be safer.

ANTISWINGCORE

W3 5.9 5.8 6.1

W2 5.7 5.9 6.1

W1 5.6 5.6 5.8

Change +0.3 +0.2 +0.3

Averages reported on 1 to 7 scale where “1” means strongly disagree and “7”means strongly agree.

message tests among those who recall ads55
Message Tests Among Those Who Recall Ads
  • If I telecommute, use public transportation or carpool, it will be less stressful than driving my own car.

ANTISWINGCORE

W3 4.6 4.9 5.3

W2 4.5 4.7 5.6

W1 4.2 5.0 4.8

Change +0.4 -0.1 +0.5

Averages reported on 1 to 7 scale where “1” means strongly disagree and “7”means strongly agree.

message tests among those who recall ads56
Message Tests Among Those Who Recall Ads
  • I could save money by using public transportation, carpooling or telecommuting instead of driving alone in my car.

ANTISWINGCORE

W3 5.0 4.7 5.4

W2 4.2 4.6 5.2

W1 4.6 4.9 5.0

Change +0.4 -0.3 +0.4

Averages reported on 1 to 7 scale where “1” means strongly disagree and “7”means strongly agree.

message tests among those who recall ads57
Message Tests Among Those Who Recall Ads
  • Using public transportation or carpooling would give me an opportunity to socialize with other people.

ANTISWINGCORE

W3 4.8 4.9 4.8

W2 4.1 4.9 5.1

W1 4.1 4.7 4.3

Change +0.7 +0.2 +0.5

Averages reported on 1 to 7 scale where “1” means strongly disagree and “7”means strongly agree.

message tests among those who recall ads58
Message Tests Among Those Who Recall Ads
  • I wish I could reduce traffic congestion, but I do not know how I can help.

ANTISWINGCORE

W3 4.8 4.8 4.3

W2 4.3 4.8 4.3

W1 4.5 4.7 4.4

Change +0.3 +0.1 -0.1

Averages reported on 1 to 7 scale where “1” means strongly disagree and “7”means strongly agree.

message tests among those who recall ads59
Message Tests Among Those Who Recall Ads
  • If people used public transportation, carpooling or telecommuting instead of driving alone in their cars, they would have more peace of mind.

ANTISWINGCORE

W3 4.8 4.8 5.1

W2 4.3 4.6 5.2

W1 4.3 4.8 3.8

Change +0.5 0 +1.3

Averages reported on 1 to 7 scale where “1” means strongly disagree and “7”means strongly agree.

message tests among those who recall ads60
Message Tests Among Those Who Recall Ads
  • If I took public transportation, carpooled or telecommuted instead of driving my own car, I would have more money to spend on other things.

ANTISWINGCORE

W3 4.8 4.4 4.8

W2 3.9 4.6 5.0

W1 4.3 4.7 4.6

Change +0.5 -0.3 +0.2

Averages reported on 1 to 7 scale where “1” means strongly disagree and “7”means strongly agree.

message tests among those who recall ads61
Message Tests Among Those Who Recall Ads
  • People who telecommute, use public transportation or carpool feel a sense of accomplishment.

ANTISWINGCORE

W3 4.5 4.7 4.8

W2 4.3 4.5 4.9

W1 4.1 4.4 4.4

Change +0.4 +0.3 +0.4

Averages reported on 1 to 7 scale where “1” means strongly disagree and “7”means strongly agree.

message tests among those who recall ads62
Message Tests Among Those Who Recall Ads
  • Using public transportation, carpooling or telecommuting could actually save me time compared to driving alone in my car.

ANTISWINGCORE

W3 3.7 4.1 4.4

W2 3.0 3.8 3.9

W1 3.3 4.2 3.7

Change +0.4 -0.1 +0.7

Averages reported on 1 to 7 scale where “1” means strongly disagree and “7”means strongly agree.

message tests among those who recall ads63
Message Tests Among Those Who Recall Ads
  • If I took public transportation, carpooled or telecommuted instead of driving alone, it would give me more control over my time.

ANTISWINGCORE

W3 3.5 3.8 3.8

W2 2.9 3.7 3.0

W1 2.9 3.7 3.0

Change +0.6 +0.1 +0.8

Averages reported on 1 to 7 scale where “1” means strongly disagree and “7”means strongly agree.

message tests among those who recall ads64
Message Tests Among Those Who Recall Ads
  • People who use public transportation, carpool or telecommute enjoy more freedom and independence in their lives than those who drive alone in their car.

ANTISWINGCORE

W3 3.4 4.1 3.8

W2 2.8 3.6 3.9

W1 2.9 3.5 3.4

Change +0.5 +0.6 +0.4

Averages reported on 1 to 7 scale where “1” means strongly disagree and “7”means strongly agree.

message tests among those who recall ads65
Message Tests Among Those Who Recall Ads
  • I could be more productive if I used an alternative form of transportation besides driving alone in my own car.

ANTISWINGCORE

W3 3.6 3.8 4.1

W2 2.9 3.7 4.5

W1 2.9 3.9 3.6

Change +0.7 -0.1 +0.5

Averages reported on 1 to 7 scale where “1” means strongly disagree and “7”means strongly agree.

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