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Framework to Reduce Traffic Congestion & Improve Air Quality in Atlanta. Strategic Research for the 2000 Clean Air Campaign: Strategic Summary and Status Report. Sponsored By: The Georgia Department of Transportation and The U.S. Federal Highway Administration Prepared By:

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Framework to Reduce Traffic Congestion & Improve Air Quality in Atlanta


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    1. Framework to Reduce Traffic Congestion & Improve Air Quality in Atlanta Strategic Research for the 2000 Clean Air Campaign: Strategic Summary and Status Report Sponsored By: The Georgia Department of Transportation and The U.S. Federal Highway Administration Prepared By: Wirthlin Worldwide for the Southern Coalition for Advanced Transportation (SCAT) December 2000 W I R T H L I N W O R L D W I D E

    2. Summary of Findings • GREAT SUCCESS in generating advertising awareness • But, the motivating, emotional payoff (greater control, less stress) not coming through • While behavior has changed among some sub-groups, not yet sufficient to register among the whole population • For the advertising to have its fullest impact, we need to explore ways to strengthen the emotional communication.

    3. Positioning • Because of the barriers regarding alternative forms of transportation – “I am dependent on others” -- the debate and communications should reframe. • This reframing stresses that alternative forms of transportation lead to being in control. This emotion serves as a way through which commuters and businesses can activate change and a way in which they would personally benefit. • For commuters, the benefits center on less stress and having time to do things that are important to them. • For businesses, the benefits center on increased productivity/better quality of life and improved morale/less stress for employees.

    4. Objectives • Measure attitudes and claimed behavioral changes • Look for increases pointing to use of alternative transportation (carpooling, public transportation, telecommuting, trip-chaining) • Assess influence of advertising on “Core”, “Anti”, and “Swing” residents

    5. Target Transportation Groups CORE (21%) – This group uses alternative transportation much more frequently than Atlantans on the whole. This segment tends to be lower income, single, younger, and contains a large proportion of minorities. ANTI (41%) –This group drives alone most often, both for commuting and running errands, and seldom uses alternative transportation. Members of this group tend to be middle-aged, white, with a higher income. SWING (39%) –This group is white and higher income like the Anti group, but contains more homemakers and retirees. These Atlantans drive alone less often than the Anti group, but are only slightly more likely to use alternative transportation. Based off November 2000 survey/ n=600

    6. Advertising and Research Timeline Advertising Start – 7/3 June 26-30 600 interviews September 12-17 600 interviews November 13-16 600 interviews Pre-Campaign Mid-Campaign (9 weeks) “Post”-Campaign (19 weeks)

    7. Advertising Evaluation Measures • Hierarchy of Effects • A commonly accepted model for the way in which consumers absorb advertising information • Consumers must ascend a hierarchy through which they: develop interest accrue knowledge develop desire act become aware Awareness Unaided awareness Aided awareness Interest/Knowledge Recall of messages Rating on specific attributes Attitudes Desire Intermediate Behaviors (i.e., pick up MARTA schedule) Action Reduce SOV use Increase use of alternatives

    8. Emotional Motivators • In control • Stress reduction • More productivity

    9. Advertising Awareness

    10. Unaided Advertising Awareness Unaided advertising awareness of public transportation and carpooling ads has increased significantly. Recall of ads regarding the problem (pollution, traffic congestion) is still much higher than the solution (public transportation, carpooling). Wave 1 Wave 2 Wave 3 Air Quality/Pollution Traffic Congestion Public Transportation Carpooling Telecommuting Reduced base: Recall quality of life advertising (June n= 274; September n=267; November n=259)

    11. – % Who Saw/Read/Heard Advertising – Aided Advertising Awareness When aided with a list of transportation solutions, claimed awareness of advertising increased significantly. Wave 1 Wave 2 Wave 3 Public Transportation Carpooling Telecommuting

    12. Advertising Content Recall: Related There is a significant increase in the number of respondents playing back alternative transportation as the content of the advertising, even since the 2nd Wave, in September. Encouraging Alternative Transportation (NET) Carpooling Public transportation Telecommuting Pollution/environmental factors Convenient/efficient Reduced base: Those who claim to recall seeing transit, telecommuting or carpooling ads (wave 1 n=493, wave 2 n=544 , wave 3 n=552)

    13. Advertising Content Recall: Unrelated There is less playback of ads not directly related to the Clean Air Campaign. MARTA specified Routes/traffic related Price/cost issues Other Reduced base: Those who claim to recall seeing transit, telecommuting or carpooling ads (wave 1 n=493, wave 2 n=544 , wave 3 n=552)

    14. Unaided Advertising Awareness – African Americans Mirroring the total market, unaided recall of traffic congestion and public transportation has significantly increased, however, the issue of air quality has not resonated with group. Significant change from the 1st wave (at the 95% confidence level) Reduce base: Recall quality of life advertising (Wave 1n=49, Wave 2 n=55, Wave 3 n=53) Q: What was the issue that you saw, read, or heard advertised? HEADFIRST MARKET RESEARCH

    15. Aided Advertising Awareness – African Americans When aided with a list of transportation solutions, African American ad awareness for carpooling and telecommuting increased significantly from wave 1. – % Who Saw/Read/Heard Advertising – Significantly higher than in the 1st wave (at the 95% confidence level) Q: Please tell me if you recall seeing, hearing or reading any advertising in the past six months about: HEADFIRST MARKET RESEARCH

    16. Advertising Content Recall – African American There was significant increase in the number of African American respondents playing back alternative transportation as the content of the advertising. Encouraging Alternative Transportation (NET) Carpooling Public transportation Telecommuting Pollution / Environmental MARTA related Routes/traffic related Reduced base: Those who claim to recall seeing transit, telecommuting or carpooling ads (wave 1 n=102, wave 2 n=121, wave 3 n=116) Q: Being as specific as you can, what do you remember about the advertising you saw? That is, can you describe what was said or shown in the advertising for me? HEADFIRST MARKET RESEARCH

    17. Wirthlin Model for Motivating Behavior develop interest accrue knowledge develop desire act become aware “People are persuaded rationally, but motivated emotionally”

    18. Are Atlantans Understanding the Emotional Payoff? “The one where the lady in the car was crying and all her make-up smeared all over her face because of the traffic. How do you deal with Atlanta traffic?” No payoff Same commercial “It was a woman dealing with stress and she ends up having a nervous breakdown. At first she has all this make-up on and then after the breakdown she has mascara all over her face…Why stress yourself out or go through all this, when you could carpool.” Payoff

    19. Advertising Content Recall: Specific Wave 2 Wave 3 Recall of Specific Commercials Recall of Emotional Payoff

    20. Changing Attitudes

    21. Attitudes Improved Slightly, with Four Statements Showing a Significant Lift • People who use public transportation, carpool or telecommuting enjoy more freedom and independence in their lives than those who drive alone in their car • Using public transportation or carpooling would give me an opportunity to socialize with other people • If people used public transportation, carpooling or telecommuting instead of driving alone in their cars, they would have more peace of mind. • If I took public transportation, carpooled or telecommuted instead of driving alone in my own car, it would give me more control over my time

    22. Significant Increases among the Unaided Ad Aware • People who use public transportation, carpool or telecommuting enjoy more freedom and independence in their lives than those who drive alone in their car • Using public transportation or carpooling would give me an opportunity to socialize with other people • If people used public transportation, carpooling or telecommuting instead of driving alone in their cars, they would have more peace of mind. • If I took public transportation, carpooled or telecommuted instead of driving alone in my own car, it would give me more control over my time • If fewer people drove their cars, people would be less likely to experience road rage • People who telecommute, use public transportation or carpool feel a sense of accomplishment.

    23. Attitudes About Transportation – African Americans There has been some positive change in opinion of public transportation during the campaign. However, almost half of African Americans still feel they would like to help reduce traffic congestion, but they still do not know what to do. HEADFIRST MARKET RESEARCH

    24. Behavioral Changes

    25. Commuting Methods Weekly – Average Percentage of Trips Per Week – Wave 1 Wave 2 Wave 3 Drive Alone Telecommute Car/Van Pool Public Transport Reduced base: Those employed (June n= 448; September n=443; November n=475)

    26. Commuting Methods Used in Last Year – Percent of Sample Using Method – Wave 1 Wave 2 Wave 3 Telecommuted Car/Van Pool Public Transportation Among the unaided ad aware, use of public transportation in the last year went up significantly from June (19%) to November (27%). However, telecommuting went down in this same group (from 48% to 40%). Reduced base: Those employed (June n= 448; September n=443; November n=475)

    27. No Consistent Pattern of Impact on Work-Related Behavior

    28. Transportation Methods for Errands – Weekly – Average Percentage of Trips Per Week – Wave 1 Wave 2 Wave 3 Drive Alone in Car Trip Chaining Car/Van Pool Public Transportation

    29. Transportation Methods for Errands: Used in Past Year Wave 1 Wave 2 Wave 3 Trip Chaining Use Internet Instead of Car Car/Van Pool

    30. How About Intermediate Behaviors? • Pick up a MARTA Schedule • Call 1-87-Ridefind • Ask your boss about telecommuting • Combine multiple errands into one trip • Use technology such as the internet instead of driving your car

    31. Actions Taken/Considered by Segments • There is a significant increase in Atlantans considering calling 1-87-Ridefind (from 2% in June to 5% in November). This is due to the “Anti” and “Core” groups, while the “Swing” group has not moved. W3-W1 Difference Wave 1 (%) Wave 2 (%) Wave 3 (%) Anti 0 1 4 +4 Swing 3 2 3 0 Core 3 3 9 +6 • The “Core” group has also become significantly more likely to have taken the action of asking their boss about telecommuting (17% in November, compared to 9% in June).

    32. Significantly Higher Action Among Unaided Ad Aware • Picking up a schedule for MARTA • Combining multiple errands into one trip • Using technology such as the internet or computers rather than driving your car

    33. Work-Related TravelAfrican Americans There has been no significant change in behavior regarding commuting habits. Q: Thinking about your commute to & from work… about how many total times last week did you… to & from work? HEADFIRST MARKET RESEARCH

    34. Commuting Methods Used in Last Year – African American No significant changes in behavior. Significantly higher Q: Thinking back to the last year, have you ever… to work? HEADFIRST MARKET RESEARCH

    35. Non-Work Related Travel (Errands)African Americans African Americans typically run more errands weekly. Directionally the number of errands have decreased. * Mean values HEADFIRST MARKET RESEARCH

    36. Transportation Methods for Errands: Weekly – African Americans There were no significant changes in behavior although the number of errands has decreased. Drive alone in your car* Carpool or ride with others* Use public transportation or transit* * Mean values Q: Thinking about these errands, about how many times did you… to do those errands? HEADFIRST MARKET RESEARCH

    37. Transportation Methods for Errands: Used in the Last Year- AA No significant changes in behavior. Combined multiple errands into one trip Used the internet to shop and gather information instead of making a trip in your car Car or van pooled for your errands Q: Thinking back to the last year, have you ever… ? HEADFIRST MARKET RESEARCH

    38. Actions Taken/Considered - African American • Overall, there has been no significant change in behavior regarding the use of alternate forms of transportation. • Directionally there has been less of a tendency to pick up a MARTA schedule and combine multiple errands into one trip • African Americans that have unaided advertising awareness noted a significant change in considering and asking their boss about telecommuting HEADFIRST MARKET RESEARCH

    39. Internet Access – African Americans Almost three-quarters of African Americans in the sample have internet access with the majority having access both at home and at work. HEADFIRST MARKET RESEARCH

    40. Strategic Implications for African American Community • In order to bring about behavioral change: • Increase the penetration of the advertising awareness within the African American community • Target communications to this segment that in order to stabilize this portion of the core users and bring in those in the swing group • Optimize current communications to speak to combining or minimizing errands as a way for individuals to help alleviate congestion • Offer additional alternatives to help reduce traffic congestion and improve air quality • Focus efforts to target this consumer for telecommuting and use of technology in lieu of driving a car HEADFIRST MARKET RESEARCH

    41. Recommendations • Media weight levels are sufficient • Problem is communicated, but solution needs to be stronger • Creative needs to leverage emotional payoff more effectively. • New creative (television, radio, and print) should be comprehensively tested before, during, and after production

    42. Framework to Reduce Traffic Congestion & Improve Air Quality in Atlanta Strategic Research for the 2000 Clean Air Campaign: Strategic Summary and Status Report Sponsored By: The Georgia Department of Transportation and The U.S. Federal Highway Administration Prepared By: Wirthlin Worldwide for the Southern Coalition for Advanced Transportation (SCAT) December 2000 W I R T H L I N W O R L D W I D E

    43. Profile of Respondents Employment Status Work Location Full-time Inside the I-285 perimeter Part-time Student Outside the I-285 perimeter Homemaker Retired Not employed DK/refused Disabled Income Education $0-30K Less than high school $30-50K High school graduate $50-70K Technical/vocational $70-100K Some college $100K or more College graduate Refused Post-graduate

    44. Profile of Respondents Marital Status Have Children Living at Home Married Yes, under 18 Separated Yes, college age Divorced Single, never been married Both Widowed No Refused Race/Ethnicity Age Caucasian 18-29 African American 30-39 Native American 40-49 Asian American 50-59 Hispanic American 60-69 Other 70 and older Refused Refused

    45. Profile of Respondents Internet Access Where?(n=486) No Yes Internet access has gone up slightly (from 77% to 81%) since June.

    46. Attitudes About Transportation Atlantans were asked to what extent they agreed with the following statements regarding alternative transportation. If fewer people drove their cars, people would be less likely to experience "road rage" and driving would be safer. If I telecommute, use public transportation or carpool, it will be less stressful than driving my own car. I could save money by using public transportation, carpooling or telecommuting instead of driving alone in my car. Using public transportation or carpooling would give me an opportunity to socialize with other people. I wish I could reduce traffic congestion, but I do not know how I can help. If people used public transportation, carpooling or telecommuting instead of driving alone in their cars, they would have more peace of mind. If I took public transportation, carpooled or telecommuted instead of driving my own car, I would have more money to spend on other things. Using public transportation, carpooling or telecommuting could actually save me time compared to driving alone in my car People who telecommute, use public transportation or carpool feel a sense of accomplishment I could be more productive if I used an alternative form of transportation besides driving alone in my own car. If I took public transportation, carpooled or telecommuted instead of driving alone in my own car, it would give me more control over my time. People who use public transportation, carpool or telecommuting enjoy more freedom and independence in their lives than those who drive alone in their car

    47. Attitudes About Transportation Attitudes about alternative transportation are becoming slightly more favorable. – Mean score on a 7-point scale – W3-W1 Difference Wave 1 Wave 2 Wave 3 If fewer people drove their cars, people would be less likely to experience "road rage" and driving would be safer. If I telecommute, use public transportation or carpool, it will be less stressful than driving my own car. I could save money by using public transportation, carpooling or telecommuting instead of driving alone in my car. Using public transportation or carpooling would give me an opportunity to socialize with other people. I wish I could reduce traffic congestion, but I do not know how I can help. If people used public transportation, carpooling or telecommuting instead of driving alone in their cars, they would have more peace of mind. If I took public transportation, carpooled or telecommuted instead of driving my own car, I would have more money to spend on other things. People who telecommute, use public transportation or carpool feel a sense of accomplishment Using public transportation, carpooling or telecommuting could actually save me time compared to driving alone in my car I could be more productive if I used an alternative form of transportation besides driving alone in my own car. People who use public transportation, carpool or telecommuting enjoy more freedom and independence in their lives than those who drive alone in their car If I took public transportation, carpooled or telecommuted instead of driving alone in my own car, it would give me more control over my time. 5.6 4.7 4.8 4.5 4.74.4 4.5 4.3 3.7 3.5 3.3 3.3 5.8 4.8 4.7 4.7 4.74.6 4.4 4.4 3.8 3.7 3.4 3.5 5.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.5 4.5 4.0 3.7 3.7 3.5 +0.2 +0.1 0 +0.3 +0.1+0.3 0 +0.2 +0.3+0.2 +0.4 +0.2

    48. Transportation Methods for ErrandsPast Year – Unaided Awareness – Trip Chaining – Wave 1 Wave 2 Wave 3 Unaided Ad Awareness Not Aware

    49. Transportation Methods for ErrandsPast Year – Unaided Awareness – Car or Van Pooled – Wave 1 Wave 2 Wave 3 Unaided Ad Awareness Not Aware

    50. Transportation Methods for ErrandsPast Year – Unaided Awareness – Internet – Wave 1 Wave 2 Wave 3 Unaided Ad Awareness Not Aware