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18 th International Roundtable on Business Survey Frames Beijing, China October 17-22, 2004. Analysis of Statistical Units Delineated by OECD Member Countries. Bongho Choi & Denis Ward. Enterprises. Group I (Legal Units = Enterprises):
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18th International Roundtable on Business Survey Frames Beijing, China October 17-22, 2004 Analysis of Statistical Units Delineated by OECD Member Countries Bongho Choi & Denis Ward
Enterprises • Group I (Legal Units = Enterprises): Austria, Czech Republic, Finland(developing a top-down model), France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, Slovak Republic. • Group II (Delineation by Profiling): • Bottom-up Approach: Belgium, Spain, Sweden • Top-down approach: Denmark (but close to Group I), Netherlands, UK • Unknown: Canada, US, Australia, Japan, NZ, Ireland, Norway, Poland, Switzerland • Group III (Under development): Mexico, Korea, Turkey
Issues on Enterprises • Data comparison problem between “Legal Units = Enterprises” vs. “Delineation by Profiling” • The former is generally greater than the latter. • How to treat the franchise form of doing business ? • Enterprise or Establishment? • Un-incorporated enterprises are excluded in some countries (Japan and Korea) • More harmonization is needed in Enterprises by Size Classes and Business Demography. • Size categories (including the upper limit) are different.
Enterprise Groups • Countries that delineate this unit: • Canada (2,500 Corporate Families), Australia (8,000), NZ (n.a.), Denmark (n.a.), • Finland (920), France (28,962), Ireland (200), Italy (19), Netherlands (90,000), • Portugal (n.a.), Spain (21,654), Sweden (26,000), UK (100,000) • Do you think that the numbers are comparable between countries? • Countries where statistics are not available: Mexico, US, Japan, Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Luxembourg, Poland, Slovak Republic, Switzerland, Turkey.
Issues on Enterprise Groups • Terminology : corporate families in Canada, conglomerates (large & complex enterprises) in the US. • Relationship between enterprise groups and complex enterprises is not clear. • Number of enterprise groups is not comparable between countries: the method of delineation and the concept are different. • Is it necessary to split the enterprise groups into the categories like the splitting of enterprises? • Guideline to compile statistics on multi-national enterprise groups?
Local Unit (or Establishment) • Most of OECD Member Countries are observed to delineate this unit : 29 out of 30. Issues on Local Unit(or Establishment) • Relationship is not clear. • Terminology and Concept is not yet fully harmonized. • Non-European Countries (Establishment) European Countries (Local Unit) Austria (Local Unit = Kind-of-activity Unit) Denmark (Local Unit = Establishment)
KAU and Local KAU • About half of OECD Member Countries delineate this unit ‘KAU’. • Methods of delineation • KAU as an operational part of the enterprise. • By profiling the enterprise. • By aggregating local units. • By aggregating local KAUs. • Through a combination of various methods. • In the case of Local KAU, only three countries are doing delineation: Denmark, Finland, Sweden.
Issues on KAU and Local KAU • Not easy to understand the differences in methods. • Concept is different between countries. • Austria : KAU = Establishment. • Finland : KAUs = secondary activities and/or branches, and local KAU = Establishments. • Germany and Netherlands : KAUs = Enterprise • Denmark and Germany : Local KAU = Local Unit • Terminology Australia : Type of activity unit
Legal Unit • 24 countries contain legal units in their BR/BF. • Basic source for legal units : VAT registers and other relevant administrative
Concluding Remarks • There are many cases in borderlines between • Enterprises and Local units(Establishments) • Enterprises groups and Complex enterprises • KAUs and Enterprises • Local KAUs and Local units(Establishments) • Need for further studies on enterprises from the following perspective: • Ownership (autonomous, partner, linked) • Diversity (single, vertically integrated, linked, un-related) • Size (micro, small, medium, large) • Legal form (sole proprietorships, etc.) • Need for further studies on application of statistical units to short-term and structural business statistics.
Application of Statistical Units • For short-term Statistics (EU Council Regulation) • KAU for production, turnover, number of persons employed, etc. • Enterprise for retail trade and repair sector. • For Structural Business Statistics (EU Council Regulation) • Enterprise for yearly business statistics. • Local unit (or Local KAU) for regional statistics. • KAU for turnover, number of persons employed in industrial sector. • In reality, it is not easy to follow the guidelines.
Status of Statistical Units delineated in Business Registers/Frames by OECD Member Countries
Number of statistical units by OECD member countries, where data are available
Enterprises by size groups of persons employed/employees by OECD Member Countries