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18 th International Roundtable on Business Survey Frames Beijing, China October 17-22, 2004. Analysis of Statistical Units Delineated by OECD Member Countries. Bongho Choi & Denis Ward. Enterprises. Group I (Legal Units = Enterprises):

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Analysis of Statistical Units Delineated by OECD Member Countries

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  • Group I (Legal Units = Enterprises):

Austria, Czech Republic, Finland(developing a top-down model),

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg,

Portugal, Slovak Republic.

  • Group II (Delineation by Profiling):
    • Bottom-up Approach: Belgium, Spain, Sweden
    • Top-down approach: Denmark (but close to Group I), Netherlands, UK
    • Unknown: Canada, US, Australia, Japan, NZ, Ireland, Norway, Poland, Switzerland
  • Group III (Under development): Mexico, Korea, Turkey
issues on enterprises
Issues on Enterprises
  • Data comparison problem between “Legal Units = Enterprises” vs. “Delineation by Profiling”
    • The former is generally greater than the latter.
  • How to treat the franchise form of doing business ?
    • Enterprise or Establishment?
  • Un-incorporated enterprises are excluded in some countries (Japan and Korea)
  • More harmonization is needed in Enterprises by Size Classes and Business Demography.
    • Size categories (including the upper limit) are different.
enterprise groups
Enterprise Groups
  • Countries that delineate this unit:
    • Canada (2,500 Corporate Families), Australia (8,000), NZ (n.a.), Denmark (n.a.),
    • Finland (920), France (28,962), Ireland (200), Italy (19), Netherlands (90,000),
    • Portugal (n.a.), Spain (21,654), Sweden (26,000), UK (100,000)
  • Do you think that the numbers are comparable between countries?
  • Countries where statistics are not available: Mexico, US, Japan, Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Luxembourg, Poland, Slovak Republic, Switzerland, Turkey.
issues on enterprise groups
Issues on Enterprise Groups
  • Terminology : corporate families in Canada, conglomerates (large & complex enterprises) in the US.
  • Relationship between enterprise groups and complex enterprises is not clear.
  • Number of enterprise groups is not comparable between countries: the method of delineation and the concept are different.
  • Is it necessary to split the enterprise groups into the categories like the splitting of enterprises?
  • Guideline to compile statistics on multi-national enterprise groups?
local unit or establishment
Local Unit (or Establishment)
  • Most of OECD Member Countries are observed to delineate this unit : 29 out of 30.

Issues on Local Unit(or Establishment)

  • Relationship is not clear.
  • Terminology and Concept is not yet fully harmonized.
  • Non-European Countries (Establishment)

European Countries (Local Unit)

Austria (Local Unit = Kind-of-activity Unit)

Denmark (Local Unit = Establishment)

kau and local kau
KAU and Local KAU
  • About half of OECD Member Countries delineate this unit ‘KAU’.
  • Methods of delineation
    • KAU as an operational part of the enterprise.
    • By profiling the enterprise.
    • By aggregating local units.
    • By aggregating local KAUs.
    • Through a combination of various methods.
  • In the case of Local KAU, only three countries are doing delineation: Denmark, Finland, Sweden.
issues on kau and local kau
Issues on KAU and Local KAU
  • Not easy to understand the differences in methods.
  • Concept is different between countries.
    • Austria : KAU = Establishment.
    • Finland : KAUs = secondary activities and/or branches, and

local KAU = Establishments.

    • Germany and Netherlands : KAUs = Enterprise
    • Denmark and Germany : Local KAU = Local Unit
  • Terminology

Australia : Type of activity unit

legal unit
Legal Unit
  • 24 countries contain legal units in their BR/BF.
  • Basic source for legal units : VAT registers and other relevant administrative
concluding remarks
Concluding Remarks
  • There are many cases in borderlines between
    • Enterprises and Local units(Establishments)
    • Enterprises groups and Complex enterprises
    • KAUs and Enterprises
    • Local KAUs and Local units(Establishments)
  • Need for further studies on enterprises from the following perspective:
    • Ownership (autonomous, partner, linked)
    • Diversity (single, vertically integrated, linked, un-related)
    • Size (micro, small, medium, large)
    • Legal form (sole proprietorships, etc.)
  • Need for further studies on application of statistical units to short-term and structural business statistics.
application of statistical units
Application of Statistical Units
  • For short-term Statistics (EU Council Regulation)
    • KAU for production, turnover, number of persons employed, etc.
    • Enterprise for retail trade and repair sector.
  • For Structural Business Statistics (EU Council Regulation)
    • Enterprise for yearly business statistics.
    • Local unit (or Local KAU) for regional statistics.
    • KAU for turnover, number of persons employed in industrial sector.
  • In reality, it is not easy to follow the guidelines.
status of statistical units delineated in business registers frames by oecd member countries
Status of Statistical Units delineated in Business Registers/Frames by OECD Member Countries