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Wireless Sensor Networks. By Ravi Kumar Dasari EECE 505 Term Project. Contents. Introduction Applications of WSN Sensor Nodes and Network Various Routing Algorithms in WSN SPIN Routing Simulation using SNetSim Conclusions. Various wireless Networks. What are WSN?.

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wireless sensor networks

Wireless Sensor Networks

By

Ravi Kumar Dasari

EECE 505

Term Project

contents
Contents
  • Introduction
  • Applications of WSN
  • Sensor Nodes and Network
  • Various Routing Algorithms in WSN
  • SPIN Routing
  • Simulation using SNetSim
  • Conclusions
what are wsn
What are WSN?
  • Large number of heterogeneous Sensor devices spread over a large field.
  • Wireless sensing + Data Networking. Group of sensors linked by wireless media to perform distributed sensing tasks
applications of wsn
Applications of WSN
  • Military, Environmental, Health (Scanning), Space, Exploration,

Vehicular Movement, Mechanical stress levels on attached objects etc.

sensor network and nodes
Sensor Network and Nodes
  • Network Channels: User nodes or gateways and onward transmission to other network.
  • Sensor channels: Communicates among sensor nodes and targets.
  • Sensor Network has three types of Nodes

* Sensor nodes: Monitor immediate environment

* Target Nodes: Generates various stimuli for sensor nodes.

* User Nodes: Client and Administration of Sensor Networks.

sensor node
Sense Phenomena

Process Data

Communicate Data

Sensor Node
challenges in wsn s
Challenges in WSN’s
  • Energy
  • Computation
  • Communication
  • Scalability
  • Fault Tolerance
  • Power Consumption
routing in wsn
Routing in WSN

They can be divided into two main categories

  • Address Centric: Finding shortest path between pairs of addressable end-nodes.
  • Data Centric : Finding routes from multiple sources to a single sink, allowing data aggregation.
address centric
Address Centric

Source 2

Source 1

C

A

B

Sink

data centric
Data Centric

Source 2

Source 1

C

A

B – aggregates data from 1 & 2

various routing protocols
Various Routing Protocols
  • Classic Flooding
  • Gossiping
  • Ideal Dissemination
  • SPIN
classing flooding
B

D

G

C

A

E

F

Classing Flooding
  • Send data to all neighbors.
classic flooding problems
Classic Flooding Problems

A

  • Implosion Problem: A starts by flooding its data to all of its neighbors. Two copies of the data eventually end at node D. The system wastes energy and bandwidth.
  • Overlap Problem: Two sensors cover an overlapping graphic region. When the sensors flood their data to node, the Node receives two copies of the Data.
  • Resource Blinding: Resources do not modify their activities based on the amount of energy they have.

C

B

D

gossiping
Gossiping

A

  • Gossiping is an alternative to the classic flooding approach that uses randomization to conserve energy.
  • At every step each node only forwards data on to one neighbor, which it selects randomly. After node D receives the data, it must forward the data back to sender (B), otherwise the data would never reach node C

B

C

D

ideal dissemination
Ideal Dissemination

A

a

c

  • Ideal Dissemination of observed data a and c. Each node in the figure is marked with its initial data and boxed number represent the order in which data is disseminated. In Ideal dissemination both implosion caused by B and C’s common neighbor and overlap caused by A and C’s overlapping initial data item do not occur.

a,c

B

C

c

a

D

spin sensor protocols for information negotiation
SPIN: Sensor Protocols for Information Negotiation
  • One of the most dominant form of routing in the wireless sensor networks.
  • Name data, using meta-data
      • Meta Data for each sensor data
      • Same senor data -> same meta-data
      • Different sensor data -> different meta-data
  • Size of meta-data << Size of actual data
  • Uses three types of messages:
  • ADV – advertise data
  • REQ – request for data
  • DATA – data message, contains actual sensor data
spin1 and spin2
SPIN1 : Three way handshaking protocol. ADV, REQ, DATA.

Each sensor node has resource manager

Keeps track of resource consumption

Applications probe the manager before any activity

Cut down activity to save energy

SPIN2 : energy constraint

Adds energy-conservative heuristic to the SPIN1 protocol.

Node initiates three stage protocol, only if it has enough energy to complete it.

If below energy threshold, node can still receive messages, cannot send/recv DATA messages

SPIN1 and SPIN2
simulators available for wsn
Simulators available for WSN
  • JavaSim: Easy to use, very modular but no wireless support.
  • GlomoSim: Specific for wireless networks, layer architecture, but too robust to be used for small networks.
  • NS-2: Supports wireless simulations, lots of good documentation, But difficult to use, we need to create separate modules for each protocol.
  • SNetSim: New simulation software, mainly for event driven conditions, simple and easy to use, can create our own protocols.
snetsim
SNetSim
  • SNetSim is a event-driven simulation software running on Windows based operating systems. Developed at Naval Science and Engineering Institute (Turkey)
conclusions
Conclusions
  • SPIN is simple to implement compared with other protocols.
  • SPIN seems to be the best protocol. It is better than flooding because it overcomes data implosion and overlap.
  • More energy-efficient than flooding or gossiping while distributing data at the same rate or faster than either of these protocols.
  • These is no redundant data sent through the network.
reference
Reference
  • SNetSim Software from http://www.dho.edu.tr/enstitunet/snetsim/index.htm
  • Routing Issues from http://www.rystal.uta.edu/~kumar/cse6392/termpapers/Kalyani_paper.pdf
  • SPIN issues from http://www.r2.cs.ucla.edu/seapahn/papers/sensor_nets.pdf
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