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WATER CONSERVATION. MML presentation October 23, 2008 By: Joanne Throwe. TWO MAIN APPROACHES TO WATER CONSERVATION:. Pricing Programs & Nonprice Programs. http://stateplanning.delaware.gov/livedel/information/ln_water.shtml. 1. Pricing Programs.

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Water conservation l.jpg


MML presentation

October 23, 2008

By: Joanne Throwe

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Pricing Programs & Nonprice Programs


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1. Pricing Programs

-rate structures that provide incentives to reduce water use

-might increase revenues for municipality (without increasing water use)

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2. Nonprice Programs

-increasing the efficiency of the water system

-leak detection

-plumbing fixture retrofits


-can be voluntary, rebate/incentive driven, or enforced


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Xeriscaping, Water-Efficient Appliances,

Recycled Water



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1. Xeriscaping

method of landscaping that promotes water conservation

combination of 7 basic landscaping principles:

-planning & design

-limiting turf areas

-selecting and zoning plants appropriately

-soil improvement

-using mulches

-efficient irrigation

-appropriate maintenance


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2. Water-Efficient Appliances


-low-flow toilet

-water-efficient washing machine


-rain sensor (can be wireless) on irrigation system

-ET (EvapoTranspiration) controller


-high-efficiency urinal

-boiler-less steamer (for large-scale cooking)

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3. Recycled Water/Graywater

-water reuse in manufacturing processes

-treated wastewater for nonpotable water uses


-street washing

-industrial cooling

-washing municipal vehicles

-dust control at construction sites


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1. Universal Metering

-for both customer and public water uses

-allows accurate tracking of water usage

-make sure meters are accurate

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2. Rate Structure (Pricing)http://www.savewatersavemoney.co.uk/control/image/large/save-water-water-meter-1.jpg

non-promotional metered rates

-metered rates and non-promotional

block structure

-unit price for water increases as the volume consumed increases

-a base price is set for a minimum quantity of water

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3. Rebates, Vouchers, Retrofitshttp://www.savewatersavemoney.co.uk/control/image/large/save-water-water-meter-1.jpg

-for water-efficient appliances

-for replacing traditional lawn landscaping with Xeriscaping (often by square feet)

-for rainwater harvesting equipment

-for installing sub-meters in multi-tenant buildings

-retrofit kits/programs(for free or at cost)

-leak repairs

-target plumbing fixtures

-targeted programs for different customers

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4. Landscape Efficiency at Municipal Levelhttp://www.savewatersavemoney.co.uk/control/image/large/save-water-water-meter-1.jpg

-efficiency-oriented landscaping, Xeriscaping

-public parks, building grounds, golf courses

-sub-metering for irrigation

-cooperate with local nurseries to ensure the availability of water conserving plants

ex: Morning Glory (Ipomoea spp.)

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5. Recycled Water/Graywaterhttp://www.savewatersavemoney.co.uk/control/image/large/save-water-water-meter-1.jpg

Recycled water pipes should be color-coded and clearly marked

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6. New Construction Regulation

-requirements for new developments

-landscaping, drainage, irrigation practices

-water efficiency standards for new homes

-efficient appliances

-rainwater collection systems


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7. Outreach/Educationhttp://www.savewatersavemoney.co.uk/control/image/large/save-water-water-meter-1.jpg

-understandable water bills

-informational pamphlets

-school programs, online games/resources for kids

-workshops for plumbers, builders, landscape providers

-Xeriscaping/irrigation workshops/online courses

-water conservation tips for individuals on website

-hotline for individuals to report water waste (or online)

-outreach events (such as Earth Day)

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CASE STUDIEShttp://www.savewatersavemoney.co.uk/control/image/large/save-water-water-meter-1.jpg


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San Antonio, TXhttp://www.savewatersavemoney.co.uk/control/image/large/save-water-water-meter-1.jpg

Methods Used: Rate Structure, Rebates (appliances, landscaping), Retrofits, Recycled Water, Outreach/Education

winner of the 2006 Municipal Water Conservation Achievement Awards Program


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-population: 1,196,438 (2004)

-number of connections: 300,000 (2004)

-total water demand (1000 gallons): 53,021.3 million (2004)

-total per capita use (2004) (gpcd: gallons per capita per day): 121

-10 year goal for total per capita use (gpcd): 116 (dry year: 132) by 2016

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Rate Structurehttp://www.legendsofamerica.com/photos-texas/San%20Antonio%20view,%20Carol%20M.Highsmith,%202005-500.jpg

-tiered rates structure: block pricing (2005 values)

-$6.56 meter fee (all users)

-0 to 7,481 gallons: $0.08/100 gallons

-next 5,236 gallons: $0.13/100 gallons

-next 4,488 gallons: $0.20/100 gallons

-beyond 17,205 gallons: $.041/100 gallons

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Rebates, Incentives, Retrofitshttp://www.legendsofamerica.com/photos-texas/San%20Antonio%20view,%20Carol%20M.Highsmith,%202005-500.jpg

-water-efficient washing machine: $100

-tankless water heaters

-low-flow toilet: $75

-free low-flow toilet distribution event

-approved waterwise landscape

-rain sensor: 50% rebate

-leak repairs and retrofits to low-income homeowners free

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Reclaimed Waterhttp://www.legendsofamerica.com/photos-texas/San%20Antonio%20view,%20Carol%20M.Highsmith,%202005-500.jpg

-graywater used to water public golf courses


-educational program on Xeriscaping

-free analysis of ratepayers in-ground irrigation systems

-free information service: expert advice on lawn irrigation

-water bills include trends in the user’s monthly water use and the comparison of their use to the average (shown graphically)

-individuals can report instances of water waste online

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spending an average of $1/person on conservation programs saved $4–$7/person (2005)

$4.4 million in conservation program expenditures in 2006  $308 per acre-foot saved

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Denver, CO

Methods Used: Rebates (appliances, landscaping, industrial), Recycled Water, New Construction Regulations

conservation goal set in 2006:

reduce water use to 165 gallons per person per day by 2016

the conservation plan is called Tap+Smart


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Residential Rebate Programs

-high efficiency clothes washers: $150

-high efficiency toilets: $125

-ET (EvapoTranspiration) controllers: 25% of purchase price

-rain sensors: $25

-wireless rain sensors: $50


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Recycled Water Systemhttp://mocoloco.com/archives/dyson_washing_machine_jan_04.jpg

-used for irrigation, industrial use, for lakes in parks and golf courses

-water recycling plant will receive 45 mg of water per day from the wastewater treatment plant

-cost (when completed): $154 million

-rates: service charge: $3.82 monthly or $6.07 bimonthly

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New Construction Regulation: Soil Amendmenthttp://mocoloco.com/archives/dyson_washing_machine_jan_04.jpg

-amending soil with compost

-compost increases amount of water soil can hold & length of time it can hold the water

-inspection ($80 fee) required when water tap is installed

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Raleigh, NC

Methods Used: Retrofits, Recycled Water


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the city of Raleigh has encouraged all residents and businesses to install low flow water devices

Recycled Rainwater

-installed rain barrels at various city government locations to capture runoff from building roofs

-runoff is used to irrigate landscape areas

-selling rain barrels to citizens and encouraging their use

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Cary, NChttp://www.designspongeonline.com/wp-content/uploads/raleigh.jpg

Methods Used: Recycled Water, Outreach/Education


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Reclaimed Water Systemhttp://www.designspongeonline.com/wp-content/uploads/raleigh.jpg

-uses: irrigation, manufacturing processes, industrial cooling, street washing, dust control at construction sites

-reclaimed water costs less than potable water

$3.28/1000gal vs. $5.33/1000gal for single family in 2006

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Water Wise Hotlinehttp://www.designspongeonline.com/wp-content/uploads/raleigh.jpg

Residents can call to:

-discuss their water consumption

-schedule an assessment of their home to

identify leaks

-dye tablets to test for toilet leaks

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Albuquerque and Bernalillo County, NMhttp://www.designspongeonline.com/wp-content/uploads/raleigh.jpg

Method Used: New Construction Regulations


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Water Efficiency Standards for New Homeshttp://www.designspongeonline.com/wp-content/uploads/raleigh.jpg

-rainwater collection system (rainwater captured from at least 85% of roof area)

-low-flow toilets

-would increase price of new home by $500 (estimate by the utility)


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Boerne-Samuel V. Champion High School Boerne, TXhttp://www.designspongeonline.com/wp-content/uploads/raleigh.jpg

Method Used: Recycled Water


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Underground Water Capture and Reuse Systemhttp://www.designspongeonline.com/wp-content/uploads/raleigh.jpg

-water is reused for irrigation

-cost of water conservation modifications: $265,000

-overall construction costs of the campus: $45 million

-the school district estimates to buy 86% less water from the City (in average rain year)

-annual savings: $35,000

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Metropolitan Water District of Southern CAhttp://www.designspongeonline.com/wp-content/uploads/raleigh.jpg

Methods Used: Rebates (appliances, landscaping), Outreach/Education


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Rebates for Home Buildershttp://www.designspongeonline.com/wp-content/uploads/raleigh.jpg

California Friendly Model Home Program


-dual-flush toilets (2 different flush “size” settings) or 1-gallon toilets: $100 each (up to 3 units)

-high-efficiency clothes washer: $400

-smart sprinkler controller: $200

-landscaping that meets water efficient qualifications: $0.80/square feet (up to 2,000 square feet)

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Education/Outreach Campaign

-campaign ads in English and Spanish

-Orange County water hero

-kit for kids to become water superheroes

-includes shower timer

-online irrigation & landscaping courses

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Central Basin Municipal Water District http://www.designspongeonline.com/wp-content/uploads/raleigh.jpg

(Southern CA)

Method Used: Outreach/Education


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-online water games/quizzes/facts/educationhttp://www.designspongeonline.com/wp-content/uploads/raleigh.jpg

for different grade levels



-public speakers

-yearly Earth Day outreach events

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EPA WATERSENSE PROGRAMhttp://www.designspongeonline.com/wp-content/uploads/raleigh.jpg


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Becoming a Partner in EPA’s WaterSense Programhttp://www.designspongeonline.com/wp-content/uploads/raleigh.jpg

-local governments can participate

-assistance with technology

-partnerships (utilities, businesses…)

-strengthen outreach message with the backing of a national program

-use the WaterSense logo

-educational materials



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Thank you!http://www.designspongeonline.com/wp-content/uploads/raleigh.jpg

Joanne Throwe

Associate Director

Environmental Finance Center

Tel: 301/405-5036