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WATER CONSERVATION. MML presentation October 23, 2008 By: Joanne Throwe. TWO MAIN APPROACHES TO WATER CONSERVATION:. Pricing Programs & Nonprice Programs. http://stateplanning.delaware.gov/livedel/information/ln_water.shtml. 1. Pricing Programs.

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    1. WATER CONSERVATION MML presentation October 23, 2008 By: Joanne Throwe

    2. TWO MAIN APPROACHES TO WATER CONSERVATION: Pricing Programs & Nonprice Programs http://stateplanning.delaware.gov/livedel/information/ln_water.shtml

    3. 1. Pricing Programs -rate structures that provide incentives to reduce water use -might increase revenues for municipality (without increasing water use)

    4. 2. Nonprice Programs -increasing the efficiency of the water system -leak detection -plumbing fixture retrofits -outreach/education -can be voluntary, rebate/incentive driven, or enforced http://sonafix.com/images/plumber_4ofh.bmp

    5. TERMINOLOGY/TECHNOLOGY: Xeriscaping, Water-Efficient Appliances, Recycled Water http://www.thisland.uiuc.edu/57ways/images/57_C_detail.JPG http://farm1.static.flickr.com/13/20099340_ff679ae6b3.jpg

    6. 1. Xeriscaping method of landscaping that promotes water conservation combination of 7 basic landscaping principles: -planning & design -limiting turf areas -selecting and zoning plants appropriately -soil improvement -using mulches -efficient irrigation -appropriate maintenance http://www.homesbynewvistas.com/images/features/xeriscape.jpg

    7. 2. Water-Efficient Appliances Indoor: -low-flow toilet -water-efficient washing machine Outdoor: -rain sensor (can be wireless) on irrigation system -ET (EvapoTranspiration) controller Industrial: -high-efficiency urinal -boiler-less steamer (for large-scale cooking)

    8. 3. Recycled Water/Graywater -water reuse in manufacturing processes -treated wastewater for nonpotable water uses -irrigation -street washing -industrial cooling -washing municipal vehicles -dust control at construction sites http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1032/1400276159_c08d016547.jpg?v=0

    9. METHODS/TOOLS http://www.vizamotors.com/images/toolbox.jpg

    10. http://www.savewatersavemoney.co.uk/control/image/large/save-water-water-meter-1.jpghttp://www.savewatersavemoney.co.uk/control/image/large/save-water-water-meter-1.jpg 1. Universal Metering -for both customer and public water uses -allows accurate tracking of water usage -make sure meters are accurate

    11. 2. Rate Structure (Pricing) non-promotional metered rates -metered rates and non-promotional block structure -unit price for water increases as the volume consumed increases -a base price is set for a minimum quantity of water

    12. 3. Rebates, Vouchers, Retrofits -for water-efficient appliances -for replacing traditional lawn landscaping with Xeriscaping (often by square feet) -for rainwater harvesting equipment -for installing sub-meters in multi-tenant buildings -retrofit kits/programs(for free or at cost) -leak repairs -target plumbing fixtures -targeted programs for different customers

    13. 4. Landscape Efficiency at Municipal Level -efficiency-oriented landscaping, Xeriscaping -public parks, building grounds, golf courses -sub-metering for irrigation -cooperate with local nurseries to ensure the availability of water conserving plants ex: Morning Glory (Ipomoea spp.)

    14. 5. Recycled Water/Graywater Recycled water pipes should be color-coded and clearly marked

    15. http://www.kptcarpenters.com/P9240005.JPG 6. New Construction Regulation -requirements for new developments -landscaping, drainage, irrigation practices -water efficiency standards for new homes -efficient appliances -rainwater collection systems http://www.sbprojectcleanwater.org/images/WQathome/rainbarrel2.jpg

    16. 7. Outreach/Education -understandable water bills -informational pamphlets -school programs, online games/resources for kids -workshops for plumbers, builders, landscape providers -Xeriscaping/irrigation workshops/online courses -water conservation tips for individuals on website -hotline for individuals to report water waste (or online) -outreach events (such as Earth Day)

    17. CASE STUDIES http://brownswcd.org/images/waterdrop.jpg

    18. San Antonio, TX Methods Used: Rate Structure, Rebates (appliances, landscaping), Retrofits, Recycled Water, Outreach/Education winner of the 2006 Municipal Water Conservation Achievement Awards Program http://txdot.lib.utexas.edu/images/texas.gif

    19. http://www.legendsofamerica.com/photos-texas/San%20Antonio%20view,%20Carol%20M.Highsmith,%202005-500.jpghttp://www.legendsofamerica.com/photos-texas/San%20Antonio%20view,%20Carol%20M.Highsmith,%202005-500.jpg Context -population: 1,196,438 (2004) -number of connections: 300,000 (2004) -total water demand (1000 gallons): 53,021.3 million (2004) -total per capita use (2004) (gpcd: gallons per capita per day): 121 -10 year goal for total per capita use (gpcd): 116 (dry year: 132) by 2016

    20. Rate Structure -tiered rates structure: block pricing (2005 values) -$6.56 meter fee (all users) -0 to 7,481 gallons: $0.08/100 gallons -next 5,236 gallons: $0.13/100 gallons -next 4,488 gallons: $0.20/100 gallons -beyond 17,205 gallons: $.041/100 gallons

    21. Rebates, Incentives, Retrofits -water-efficient washing machine: $100 -tankless water heaters -low-flow toilet: $75 -free low-flow toilet distribution event -approved waterwise landscape -rain sensor: 50% rebate -leak repairs and retrofits to low-income homeowners free

    22. Reclaimed Water -graywater used to water public golf courses Outreach/Education -educational program on Xeriscaping -free analysis of ratepayers in-ground irrigation systems -free information service: expert advice on lawn irrigation -water bills include trends in the user’s monthly water use and the comparison of their use to the average (shown graphically) -individuals can report instances of water waste online

    23. Outcomes spending an average of $1/person on conservation programs saved $4–$7/person (2005) $4.4 million in conservation program expenditures in 2006  $308 per acre-foot saved

    24. http://geology.com/county-map/colorado-county-map.gif Denver, CO Methods Used: Rebates (appliances, landscaping, industrial), Recycled Water, New Construction Regulations conservation goal set in 2006: reduce water use to 165 gallons per person per day by 2016 the conservation plan is called Tap+Smart http://www.denverwater.org/search/searchframe.html

    25. http://mocoloco.com/archives/dyson_washing_machine_jan_04.jpghttp://mocoloco.com/archives/dyson_washing_machine_jan_04.jpg Residential Rebate Programs -high efficiency clothes washers: $150 -high efficiency toilets: $125 -ET (EvapoTranspiration) controllers: 25% of purchase price -rain sensors: $25 -wireless rain sensors: $50 http://www.rainbird.com/images/products/turf/controllers/rsd_1_bg.jpg

    26. Recycled Water System -used for irrigation, industrial use, for lakes in parks and golf courses -water recycling plant will receive 45 mg of water per day from the wastewater treatment plant -cost (when completed): $154 million -rates: service charge: $3.82 monthly or $6.07 bimonthly

    27. New Construction Regulation: Soil Amendment -amending soil with compost -compost increases amount of water soil can hold & length of time it can hold the water -inspection ($80 fee) required when water tap is installed

    28. http://www.designspongeonline.com/wp-content/uploads/raleigh.jpghttp://www.designspongeonline.com/wp-content/uploads/raleigh.jpg Raleigh, NC Methods Used: Retrofits, Recycled Water http://geology.com/state-map/maps/north-carolina-county-map.gif

    29. Retrofits the city of Raleigh has encouraged all residents and businesses to install low flow water devices Recycled Rainwater -installed rain barrels at various city government locations to capture runoff from building roofs -runoff is used to irrigate landscape areas -selling rain barrels to citizens and encouraging their use

    30. Cary, NC Methods Used: Recycled Water, Outreach/Education http://www.townofcary.org/depts/pwdept/water/waterconservation/overview.htm

    31. Reclaimed Water System -uses: irrigation, manufacturing processes, industrial cooling, street washing, dust control at construction sites -reclaimed water costs less than potable water $3.28/1000gal vs. $5.33/1000gal for single family in 2006

    32. Water Wise Hotline Residents can call to: -discuss their water consumption -schedule an assessment of their home to identify leaks -dye tablets to test for toilet leaks

    33. Albuquerque and Bernalillo County, NM Method Used: New Construction Regulations http://geology.com/state-map/maps/new-mexico-county-map.gif

    34. Water Efficiency Standards for New Homes -rainwater collection system (rainwater captured from at least 85% of roof area) -low-flow toilets -would increase price of new home by $500 (estimate by the utility) http://www.scrd.ca/files/Image/Water/toilet.jpg

    35. Boerne-Samuel V. Champion High School Boerne, TX Method Used: Recycled Water http://www.boerne-isd.net/uploaded/champion/champion_high.jpg

    36. Underground Water Capture and Reuse System -water is reused for irrigation -cost of water conservation modifications: $265,000 -overall construction costs of the campus: $45 million -the school district estimates to buy 86% less water from the City (in average rain year) -annual savings: $35,000

    37. Metropolitan Water District of Southern CA Methods Used: Rebates (appliances, landscaping), Outreach/Education http://img134.imageshack.us/img134/4075/meth20newseal1ci.gif

    38. Rebates for Home Builders California Friendly Model Home Program Rebates: -dual-flush toilets (2 different flush “size” settings) or 1-gallon toilets: $100 each (up to 3 units) -high-efficiency clothes washer: $400 -smart sprinkler controller: $200 -landscaping that meets water efficient qualifications: $0.80/square feet (up to 2,000 square feet)

    39. http://www.lbcwd.org/uploads/images/regular/397.jpg Education/Outreach Campaign -campaign ads in English and Spanish -Orange County water hero -kit for kids to become water superheroes -includes shower timer -online irrigation & landscaping courses

    40. Central Basin Municipal Water District (Southern CA) Method Used: Outreach/Education http://www.centralbasin.org/educationPrograms.html

    41. -online water games/quizzes/facts/education for different grade levels http://www.centralbasin.org/events.html -outreach: -public speakers -yearly Earth Day outreach events

    42. EPA WATERSENSE PROGRAM http://www.doh.wa.gov/ehp/dw/Programs/WSlogo.jpg

    43. Becoming a Partner in EPA’s WaterSense Program -local governments can participate -assistance with technology -partnerships (utilities, businesses…) -strengthen outreach message with the backing of a national program -use the WaterSense logo -educational materials -awards http://www.miamidade.gov/conservation/images/watersense_logo_home.gif

    44. Thank you! Joanne Throwe Associate Director Environmental Finance Center Tel: 301/405-5036 jthrowe@umd.edu www.efc.umd.edu