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WATER CONSERVATION. MML presentation October 23, 2008 By: Joanne Throwe. TWO MAIN APPROACHES TO WATER CONSERVATION:. Pricing Programs & Nonprice Programs. http://stateplanning.delaware.gov/livedel/information/ln_water.shtml. 1. Pricing Programs.

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water conservation

WATER CONSERVATION

MML presentation

October 23, 2008

By: Joanne Throwe

slide2

TWO MAIN APPROACHES TO

WATER CONSERVATION:

Pricing Programs & Nonprice Programs

http://stateplanning.delaware.gov/livedel/information/ln_water.shtml

slide3

1. Pricing Programs

-rate structures that provide incentives to reduce water use

-might increase revenues for municipality (without increasing water use)

slide4

2. Nonprice Programs

-increasing the efficiency of the water system

-leak detection

-plumbing fixture retrofits

-outreach/education

-can be voluntary, rebate/incentive driven, or enforced

http://sonafix.com/images/plumber_4ofh.bmp

slide5

TERMINOLOGY/TECHNOLOGY:

Xeriscaping, Water-Efficient Appliances,

Recycled Water

http://www.thisland.uiuc.edu/57ways/images/57_C_detail.JPG

http://farm1.static.flickr.com/13/20099340_ff679ae6b3.jpg

slide6

1. Xeriscaping

method of landscaping that promotes water conservation

combination of 7 basic landscaping principles:

-planning & design

-limiting turf areas

-selecting and zoning plants appropriately

-soil improvement

-using mulches

-efficient irrigation

-appropriate maintenance

http://www.homesbynewvistas.com/images/features/xeriscape.jpg

slide7

2. Water-Efficient Appliances

Indoor:

-low-flow toilet

-water-efficient washing machine

Outdoor:

-rain sensor (can be wireless) on irrigation system

-ET (EvapoTranspiration) controller

Industrial:

-high-efficiency urinal

-boiler-less steamer (for large-scale cooking)

slide8

3. Recycled Water/Graywater

-water reuse in manufacturing processes

-treated wastewater for nonpotable water uses

-irrigation

-street washing

-industrial cooling

-washing municipal vehicles

-dust control at construction sites

http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1032/1400276159_c08d016547.jpg?v=0

slide9

METHODS/TOOLS

http://www.vizamotors.com/images/toolbox.jpg

slide10

http://www.savewatersavemoney.co.uk/control/image/large/save-water-water-meter-1.jpghttp://www.savewatersavemoney.co.uk/control/image/large/save-water-water-meter-1.jpg

1. Universal Metering

-for both customer and public water uses

-allows accurate tracking of water usage

-make sure meters are accurate

slide11

2. Rate Structure (Pricing)

non-promotional metered rates

-metered rates and non-promotional

block structure

-unit price for water increases as the volume consumed increases

-a base price is set for a minimum quantity of water

slide12

3. Rebates, Vouchers, Retrofits

-for water-efficient appliances

-for replacing traditional lawn landscaping with Xeriscaping (often by square feet)

-for rainwater harvesting equipment

-for installing sub-meters in multi-tenant buildings

-retrofit kits/programs(for free or at cost)

-leak repairs

-target plumbing fixtures

-targeted programs for different customers

slide13

4. Landscape Efficiency at Municipal Level

-efficiency-oriented landscaping, Xeriscaping

-public parks, building grounds, golf courses

-sub-metering for irrigation

-cooperate with local nurseries to ensure the availability of water conserving plants

ex: Morning Glory (Ipomoea spp.)

slide14

5. Recycled Water/Graywater

Recycled water pipes should be color-coded and clearly marked

slide15

http://www.kptcarpenters.com/P9240005.JPG

6. New Construction Regulation

-requirements for new developments

-landscaping, drainage, irrigation practices

-water efficiency standards for new homes

-efficient appliances

-rainwater collection systems

http://www.sbprojectcleanwater.org/images/WQathome/rainbarrel2.jpg

slide16

7. Outreach/Education

-understandable water bills

-informational pamphlets

-school programs, online games/resources for kids

-workshops for plumbers, builders, landscape providers

-Xeriscaping/irrigation workshops/online courses

-water conservation tips for individuals on website

-hotline for individuals to report water waste (or online)

-outreach events (such as Earth Day)

slide17

CASE STUDIES

http://brownswcd.org/images/waterdrop.jpg

slide18

San Antonio, TX

Methods Used: Rate Structure, Rebates (appliances, landscaping), Retrofits, Recycled Water, Outreach/Education

winner of the 2006 Municipal Water Conservation Achievement Awards Program

http://txdot.lib.utexas.edu/images/texas.gif

slide19

http://www.legendsofamerica.com/photos-texas/San%20Antonio%20view,%20Carol%20M.Highsmith,%202005-500.jpghttp://www.legendsofamerica.com/photos-texas/San%20Antonio%20view,%20Carol%20M.Highsmith,%202005-500.jpg

Context

-population: 1,196,438 (2004)

-number of connections: 300,000 (2004)

-total water demand (1000 gallons): 53,021.3 million (2004)

-total per capita use (2004) (gpcd: gallons per capita per day): 121

-10 year goal for total per capita use (gpcd): 116 (dry year: 132) by 2016

slide20

Rate Structure

-tiered rates structure: block pricing (2005 values)

-$6.56 meter fee (all users)

-0 to 7,481 gallons: $0.08/100 gallons

-next 5,236 gallons: $0.13/100 gallons

-next 4,488 gallons: $0.20/100 gallons

-beyond 17,205 gallons: $.041/100 gallons

slide21

Rebates, Incentives, Retrofits

-water-efficient washing machine: $100

-tankless water heaters

-low-flow toilet: $75

-free low-flow toilet distribution event

-approved waterwise landscape

-rain sensor: 50% rebate

-leak repairs and retrofits to low-income homeowners free

slide22

Reclaimed Water

-graywater used to water public golf courses

Outreach/Education

-educational program on Xeriscaping

-free analysis of ratepayers in-ground irrigation systems

-free information service: expert advice on lawn irrigation

-water bills include trends in the user’s monthly water use and the comparison of their use to the average (shown graphically)

-individuals can report instances of water waste online

slide23

Outcomes

spending an average of $1/person on conservation programs saved $4–$7/person (2005)

$4.4 million in conservation program expenditures in 2006  $308 per acre-foot saved

slide24

http://geology.com/county-map/colorado-county-map.gif

Denver, CO

Methods Used: Rebates (appliances, landscaping, industrial), Recycled Water, New Construction Regulations

conservation goal set in 2006:

reduce water use to 165 gallons per person per day by 2016

the conservation plan is called Tap+Smart

http://www.denverwater.org/search/searchframe.html

slide25

http://mocoloco.com/archives/dyson_washing_machine_jan_04.jpghttp://mocoloco.com/archives/dyson_washing_machine_jan_04.jpg

Residential Rebate Programs

-high efficiency clothes washers: $150

-high efficiency toilets: $125

-ET (EvapoTranspiration) controllers: 25% of purchase price

-rain sensors: $25

-wireless rain sensors: $50

http://www.rainbird.com/images/products/turf/controllers/rsd_1_bg.jpg

slide26

Recycled Water System

-used for irrigation, industrial use, for lakes in parks and golf courses

-water recycling plant will receive 45 mg of water per day from the wastewater treatment plant

-cost (when completed): $154 million

-rates: service charge: $3.82 monthly or $6.07 bimonthly

slide27

New Construction Regulation: Soil Amendment

-amending soil with compost

-compost increases amount of water soil can hold & length of time it can hold the water

-inspection ($80 fee) required when water tap is installed

slide28

http://www.designspongeonline.com/wp-content/uploads/raleigh.jpghttp://www.designspongeonline.com/wp-content/uploads/raleigh.jpg

Raleigh, NC

Methods Used: Retrofits, Recycled Water

http://geology.com/state-map/maps/north-carolina-county-map.gif

slide29

Retrofits

the city of Raleigh has encouraged all residents and businesses to install low flow water devices

Recycled Rainwater

-installed rain barrels at various city government locations to capture runoff from building roofs

-runoff is used to irrigate landscape areas

-selling rain barrels to citizens and encouraging their use

slide30

Cary, NC

Methods Used: Recycled Water, Outreach/Education

http://www.townofcary.org/depts/pwdept/water/waterconservation/overview.htm

slide31

Reclaimed Water System

-uses: irrigation, manufacturing processes, industrial cooling, street washing, dust control at construction sites

-reclaimed water costs less than potable water

$3.28/1000gal vs. $5.33/1000gal for single family in 2006

slide32

Water Wise Hotline

Residents can call to:

-discuss their water consumption

-schedule an assessment of their home to

identify leaks

-dye tablets to test for toilet leaks

slide33

Albuquerque and Bernalillo County, NM

Method Used: New Construction Regulations

http://geology.com/state-map/maps/new-mexico-county-map.gif

slide34

Water Efficiency Standards for New Homes

-rainwater collection system (rainwater captured from at least 85% of roof area)

-low-flow toilets

-would increase price of new home by $500 (estimate by the utility)

http://www.scrd.ca/files/Image/Water/toilet.jpg

slide35

Boerne-Samuel V. Champion High School Boerne, TX

Method Used: Recycled Water

http://www.boerne-isd.net/uploaded/champion/champion_high.jpg

slide36

Underground Water Capture and Reuse System

-water is reused for irrigation

-cost of water conservation modifications: $265,000

-overall construction costs of the campus: $45 million

-the school district estimates to buy 86% less water from the City (in average rain year)

-annual savings: $35,000

slide37

Metropolitan Water District of Southern CA

Methods Used: Rebates (appliances, landscaping), Outreach/Education

http://img134.imageshack.us/img134/4075/meth20newseal1ci.gif

slide38

Rebates for Home Builders

California Friendly Model Home Program

Rebates:

-dual-flush toilets (2 different flush “size” settings) or 1-gallon toilets: $100 each (up to 3 units)

-high-efficiency clothes washer: $400

-smart sprinkler controller: $200

-landscaping that meets water efficient qualifications: $0.80/square feet (up to 2,000 square feet)

slide39

http://www.lbcwd.org/uploads/images/regular/397.jpg

Education/Outreach Campaign

-campaign ads in English and Spanish

-Orange County water hero

-kit for kids to become water superheroes

-includes shower timer

-online irrigation & landscaping courses

slide40

Central Basin Municipal Water District

(Southern CA)

Method Used: Outreach/Education

http://www.centralbasin.org/educationPrograms.html

slide41

-online water games/quizzes/facts/education

for different grade levels

http://www.centralbasin.org/events.html

-outreach:

-public speakers

-yearly Earth Day outreach events

slide42

EPA WATERSENSE PROGRAM

http://www.doh.wa.gov/ehp/dw/Programs/WSlogo.jpg

slide43

Becoming a Partner in EPA’s WaterSense Program

-local governments can participate

-assistance with technology

-partnerships (utilities, businesses…)

-strengthen outreach message with the backing of a national program

-use the WaterSense logo

-educational materials

-awards

http://www.miamidade.gov/conservation/images/watersense_logo_home.gif

thank you
Thank you!

Joanne Throwe

Associate Director

Environmental Finance Center

Tel: 301/405-5036

jthrowe@umd.edu

www.efc.umd.edu