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This presentation was originally given at the Annual Meeting of the Bucks-Montgomery County Wool Pool in Plumsteadville, Pennsylvania, on March 30, 2007. FAMACHA ©. for the control of Haemonchus contortus in small ruminants.

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This presentation was originally given at the Annual Meeting of the Bucks-Montgomery County Wool Pool in Plumsteadville, Pennsylvania, on March 30, 2007.


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FAMACHA of the Bucks-Montgomery County Wool Pool in Plumsteadville, Pennsylvania, on March 30, 2007.©

for the control of Haemonchus contortus in small ruminants

SUSAN SCHOENIANSheep and Goat SpecialistW. MD Research & Education CenterMaryland Cooperative Extensionwww.sheepandgoat.com


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Fact #1 of the Bucks-Montgomery County Wool Pool in Plumsteadville, Pennsylvania, on March 30, 2007.Gastro-intestinal parasites, A.K.A. Worms, are the primary health problem affecting sheep and goats in warm, moist climates.


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fAct #2 of the Bucks-Montgomery County Wool Pool in Plumsteadville, Pennsylvania, on March 30, 2007.THE BARBER POLE WORM IS THE PARASITE OF PRIMARY CONCERN.

It Costs.

It kills.


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Common names: barber pole, wire worm, large stomach worm. of the Bucks-Montgomery County Wool Pool in Plumsteadville, Pennsylvania, on March 30, 2007.

Blood-sucking roundworm that pierces the mucosa of the abomasum, causing blood and protein loss to the host.

It needs warm (60°F), moist conditions to complete its life cycle.

Pasture is the primary mode of transmission.

It is estimated that 80% of the worm larvae is found in the first two inches of grazing vegetation.

Young animals and highly stressed adults are most vulnerable to its effects.

Haemonchus contortus


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It has a short life cycle. of the Bucks-Montgomery County Wool Pool in Plumsteadville, Pennsylvania, on March 30, 2007.

On average 2 to 3 weeks

As short as 7 days

It has a direct life cycle.No intermediate host is required.

the barber pole worm Can Be difficult to control.


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It is a prolific egg producer. of the Bucks-Montgomery County Wool Pool in Plumsteadville, Pennsylvania, on March 30, 2007.

It has been estimated that 20% of the flock is responsible for 80% of the egg output.

the barber pole worm CAN be difficult to control.

  • It is very adaptable.

    • It can go into a hypobiotic (arrested) state in the animal to survive poor environmental conditions.

    • It can survive on pasture for a long time.

      • 60 days pasture rest is needed to reduce pasture contamination to a low level.

      • Some larvae survive over winter.

    • It has become resistant to most anthelmintics.


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Dead of the Bucks-Montgomery County Wool Pool in Plumsteadville, Pennsylvania, on March 30, 2007.

Loss of body condition

Ill thrift

Not scours

Anemia (pale mucous membranes)

Edema – “bottle jaw”accumulation of fluid under jaw

symptoms of Barber Pole worm infection


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What about The other parasites? of the Bucks-Montgomery County Wool Pool in Plumsteadville, Pennsylvania, on March 30, 2007.

  • “Cousins” of the barber pole worm cause digestive problems, e.g. scouring

    • Ostertagia spp.

    • Trichostrongylus spp.

    • Nematodirus

  • TapewormsOnly worm that is visible in the feces.

  • LungwormsDifficult to detect in live animal

  • CoccidiaProtozoa, major disease issue in small ruminants

  • Meningeal wormparasite of white tail deer, causes neurological symptoms

  • The FAMACHA© system is not useful for any of these other parasites.


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fAct #3 of the Bucks-Montgomery County Wool Pool in Plumsteadville, Pennsylvania, on March 30, 2007.worms have become resistant* to most of the anthelmintics.

Only 3 drug families!

  • Benzimidazoles

  • Levamisoles

  • Macrolytic Lactones

  • Anthelmintic treatment fails to reduce worm egg count by 90%. Severe resistance exists when anthelmintic reduces egg count by less than 60%


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Monthly deworming of the Bucks-Montgomery County Wool Pool in Plumsteadville, Pennsylvania, on March 30, 2007.

Deworm every month

Deworm before breeding, before lambing, before shows, etc.

Deworm because you haven’t done it lately.

Deworm because you’re handling the sheep for another reason.

Deworm to prevent problems.

Deworm everybody, all the time.

Deworming to get rid of all the worms.

Deworm because you’re a good manager.

Selective deworming

Fact #4Regular deworming of every member of the flock is not A SUSTAINABLE PRACTICE.


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Integrated Parasite Management (IPM) of the Bucks-Montgomery County Wool Pool in Plumsteadville, Pennsylvania, on March 30, 2007.

Pasture rest/rotation

Safe pastures

Multi-species grazing

Management of grazing height

Alternative forages and treatments

Nutritional supplementation

Zero grazing

Within and between breed selection

Fecal egg analysis

Proper anthelmintic use

Selective deworming

Fact #5Nowadays, worm control requires a more integrated approach.


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A novel system for monitoring barber pole worm infection in small ruminants.

Developed in South Africa due to the widespread emergence of drug resistant worms.

Originally developed for South African sheep, but has been validated for sheep and goats in the United States.

Named for its originator Dr. Francois “FAffa” MAlan CHArt

What is FAMACHA©?


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A color eye chart for evaluating clinical anemia in sheep and goats.

Anemia is the primary symptom of barber pole worm infection.

FAMACHA© enables the selective deworming of clinically parasitized animals, while leaving healthy animals untreated.

What is FAMACHA©?


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The FAMACHA and goats.© Systemfor assessing anemia and barber pole worm infection in small ruminants

sheep

goats


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Reduces the number of animals that are dewormed (though some animals may need treated more often).

Saves you money on drugs

Reduces chemical/drug use

Reduces selection for drug resistant worms, by increasing refugia: worms not exposed to drug(s).

What FAMACHA© does

  • Prolongs effectiveness of anthelmintics.


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Identifies susceptible and resistant animals in the flock animals may need treated more often).(parasite resistance is moderately heritable).

What FAMACHA© does

  • Assists with selection and culling decisions.

  • Adds value to breeding stock

Keep

Cull

Cull

Sell

Sell

Sell

Sell

Keep

Keep

Cull

Keep

Sell

Keep


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Always use the card. animals may need treated more often).

Don’t use a copy of the card.

Replace the card every year (colors fade).

Check often enough (e.g. every 2-3 weeks during the “worm” season).

Have an easy way to handle your animals.

Test for drug resistance. You must know if an anthelmintic is effective!

For FAMACHA© to work…


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Eliminate the need for other parasite control practices. animals may need treated more often).

Save you time.

You may deworm less frequently, but you’ll spend more time checking your animals.

Help with other potential parasite problems

Other GI worms

Coccidia

Etc.

What FAMACHA© doesn’t Do

FAMACHA© is not a magic bullet. It is another tool.


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2005 animals may need treated more often).

84 Katahdin and Katahdin crossbred lambs from a sire comparison study (Suffolk, Texel, and Dorper sires).

~7 lambs/acre

2006

31-50 Kiko, Boer, and Boer x Kiko male kids from the Western Maryland Pasture-Based Meat Goat Performance Test.

3-5 goats/acre

Using Famacha© to control parasites in lambs and goats grazing summer pasturesWestern Maryland Research & Education Center


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1.2% animals may need treated more often).

6

1.2%

5

4

4.8%

7.1%

3

2

16.7%

1

41.7%

0

26.2%

2005 Lamb Study

July 11

% Lambs/No. times treated


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Aug 4 animals may need treated more often).

2006 Goat Study


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FAMACHA is distributed under the auspices of the South African Veterinary Association.

U.S. distribution is made through the SCSRPC via the laboratory of Dr. Ray Kaplan (University of Georgia)

FAMACHA cards are only to be sold directly to veterinarians.

Producers are required to take an approved training in order to receive a card.

How do I get a FAMACHA© Card?

Southern Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control (SCSRPC)

http://www.scsrpc.org


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Questions, Comments, Disagreements? African Veterinary Association.

Thank you.


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Are you African Veterinary Association.done yet?

I wanna go home.


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