The Bourbon Reforms - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Bourbon Reforms

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  1. The Bourbon Reforms And the Strains of Empire

  2. Late Colonial Mexico • Population and Demographics • Premodern vs. modern social structure • The importance of race and class • The Growth of an “American” Identity • Conciencia de sí • Culture and Symbols (Religious Syncretism) • The Peninsula Views New Spain • Criollos View Themselves

  3. The Enlightenment and Mexico • Growth of Newspapers/Periodical Literature • Censorship? • Public Discourse • The Tertulia • Other Spaces • The University of Salamanca Reforms, 1771 • Uses of the Past • The “Cosmic Race” • An Unwritten Constitution for the New World?

  4. The Bourbon Reforms • Felipe V and the Spanish Bourbons • Goals of the Reforms • Centralize Spanish Government • Restore Finances • Reorganize the Military • Ramifications for New Spain • The Influence of Mercantilism • “King of Spain and Emperor of America” • The Bourbons’ Conception of the State

  5. Restructuring New Spain • Fighting American Autonomy • How New Spain Became Autonomous • Creoles in Office • Reducing the Power and Autonomy of Regional Elites • Bourbon Absolutism • The Visita General of José de Gálvez (1765-1771) • Creole Reactions

  6. Colonial Reform and Colonial Backlash • New Taxes and Violent Protest • Gálvez Becomes Minister of the Indies, 1776 • The Intendants and Subdelegados • Curbing the Power of the Church • Expulsion of the Jesuits, 1767 • The Effects in New Spain • The Erosion of Religious Fueros • The Rise of the Military • Creole Involvement and Its Importance

  7. Bourbon Economic & Commercial Policy • Comercio libre y protegido (free trade and protected trade) • Abolition of the Cadíz monopoly, b. 1765 • Outside the System: Trade with Foreign Powers • Economic Effects and an Incomplete Legacy • Raising Revenues to the “Proper Level” • Massive Tax Increases and Colonial Backlash • The Context of European Warfare • The Consolidation of 1804 • Church, Credit, and the Colonial Economy • Creole vs. Peninsular