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Stages of Production. Breeding & Farrowing Gestation, Farrowing, Breeding Nursery/Feeder Pigs Finishing/Grower. Types of Swine Operations. Integrated corporate production ie. Murphy – Brown, LLC., Premium Standard, Smithfield Foods Farrow-to-Finish (farrow = swine birthing)

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stages of production
Stages of Production
  • Breeding & Farrowing
    • Gestation, Farrowing, Breeding
  • Nursery/Feeder Pigs
  • Finishing/Grower
types of swine operations
Types of Swine Operations
  • Integrated corporate production
    • ie. Murphy – Brown, LLC., Premium Standard, Smithfield Foods
    • Farrow-to-Finish (farrow = swine birthing)
    • All segments but at different sites for biosecurity
      • Seedstock, breeding/farrowing, nursery/feeder pigs, finishers
types of swine operations3
Types of Swine Operations
  • Purebred or Seedstock production
    • PIC – Pig Improvement Company, DEKALB, etc.
    • sell purebred or planned crossbred breeding stock
    • sell boars, gilts
types of swine operations4
Types of Swine Operations
  • Nursery/Feeder Pig production
    • sell weaned pigs (10-15 lbs) or feeder pigs (35-50 lbs)
  • Grower/Finisher
    • purchase feeder or weaned pigs
    • sell market hogs to harvest
    • develop breeding stock

Can be contracted by corporations

types of swine operations5
Types of Swine Operations
  • Farrow-to-finish
    • Retain breeding stock
    • Bred females farrow
    • Feed pigs to harvest weights (270 lbs)
    • Sell finished pigs to harvest
    • Smaller farms
swine facilities
Swine Facilities

Finisher

Free Range

Nursery or Finisher with Lagoons

Sow Farm

origin and domestication of swine
Origin and Domestication of Swine
  • Not herded easily – regional development
    • many different types as a result
    • China - 4900 BC, Great Britain – 800 BC
  • Most intelligent – feral in a few generations – e.g. Arkansas Razorbacks
    • some nondomesticated types…. US wild pigs?
      • Javelinas/peccaries
      • warthog, riverpig, forest hog - Africa
origin and domestication of swine8
Origin and Domestication of Swine
  • Today’s swine originated from:
    • European Wild Boar – still exist in Europe
      • Black and gray or brown
    • East Indian Pig (several types)
    • These two crossed to form modern swine breeds
swine in the usa
Swine in the USA
  • Columbus, 8 head to the USA
    • Hunted down with dogs 13 year later – killing cattle
  • DeSoto
    • 13 head, 3 yr later, 700 pigs
    • escapees were origin of razorbacks
  • Many US breeds of swine developed in the USA
    • native females crossed with European, Chinese and Russian boars
swine breeds
Swine Breeds
  • Maternal breeds – typically white; excel in litter size, fertility, milk production.
  • Paternal (sire) breeds – typically colored; excel in leanness, muscling, growth rate.
  • Corporate swine breeding companies
    • ie. Monsanto Swine Genetics, Pig Improvement Company (PIC), etc.
    • sell synthetic “lines” of breeding stock
    • hybrids of 2 or more breeds to form “lines”
    • sire/terminal or maternal lines
    • Intense selection – marker assisted selection
yorkshire
Yorkshire
  • maternal breed – 1st in USA
  • England (Large White)
  • white, erect ears
  • excels in:
    • litter size
    • milk production
    • fertility
chester white
Chester White
  • maternal breed – 7th in USA
  • Pennsylvania
  • white, small drooping ears
  • excels in:
    • litter size
    • milk production
    • fertility
landrace
Landrace
  • maternal breed 4th in USA
  • Denmark
  • white, large drooping ears excels in:
    • litter size
    • milk production
    • fertility
duroc
Duroc
  • paternal breed – 2nd in USA
  • New York/New Jersey
  • solid red color
  • excels in:
    • leanness
    • growth
    • muscling
hampshire
Hampshire
  • paternal sire – 3rd in USA
  • Boone County, KY
  • black, white belt
  • excels in:
    • leanness
    • growth
    • muscling
spots spotted
Spots (Spotted)
  • paternal sire – 5th in USA
  • Putnam County, IN
  • black and white spots
  • drooping ears
  • excels in:
    • leanness
    • growth
    • muscling
poland china
Poland China
  • Dual purpose – 8th in USA
  • Warren County, OH
  • black, white on legs, snout and tail
  • drooping ears
  • excels in:
    • growth
    • litter size
berkshire
Berkshire
  • Paternal sire – 6th in USA
  • England
  • black, white on legs, snout and tail
  • erect ears
  • excels in:
    • growth
    • Meat quality
    • Leaness?
    • Muscling?
slide19

Pietrain – Belgium – muscle and stress gene

http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/index.htm

Meishan – China - litters

Kele – China - lard

Vietnamese Pot Belly - ???

swine breeds20
Swine Breeds
  • Few (< 1%) purebred hogs in US
    • Used in some purebreed crossing systems
    • Source of known genetics for development of hybrids
  • Crossbreds: 20-30% more efficient in production = HETEROSIS
  • Use terminal and maternal lines and corporate hybrids
    • e.g. Landrace x Yorkshire sows
    • Hampshire x Duroc boars

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nmkj5gq1cQU

premier swine breeding company
Premier Swine Breeding Company

MATERNAL

LINES

TERMINAL

LINES

history
History

1910’s

Lard Type

history23
History

1920’s Bacon or Lard Type

Champion Hampshire Boar 1925 Chicago Intl

history24

1920’s

History

Bacon Type:

Lighter & Leaner

1924 Champion Chester White Barrow

1924 Champion Pen Three Yorkshrires

history25

1950’s

History

1949

1954

1958

ideal market hog primary product
Ideal Market Hog-Primary Product
  • Standards set by National Pork Board
    • Market weight = 270 lbs
    • Days to 270 lbs = 156 days avg.
    • Loin eye area = 6.5 sq. in. avg.
    • High fat free lean index, backfat .7”
    • from terminal crossbreeding program
    • free of the stress gene
    • from maternal line weaning 25 pigs/sow/year
grading pork carcasses
Grading Pork Carcasses
  • No standard Quality grades
    • Must have “acceptable” quality to meet standard Grading System
  • USDA # 1, 2, 3, 4, Utility
  • Lean yield from ham, loin, blade shoulder and picnic shoulder
    • 1 > 53%
    • 2 50 – 52.9
    • 3 47- 49.9
    • 4 < 47
  • Based upon backfat and muscling score
pork quality pse pork32
Pork Quality – PSE pork
  • Pale, soft and exudative
    • less appealing to consumer
    • water loss affects yield and profitability for processors
    • associated with porcine stress syndrome
      • homozygous recessive
      • lean, heavily muscled hogs
secondary pork products
Secondary Pork Products
  • Sows – Weight?
    • 270-600 #s Jimmy Dean Sausage
  • Boars
    • Taint ….Pizza (all weights)
reproductive management
Reproductive Management
  • Maximize use of facilities
  • All in – all out system
    • synchronize estrus for these to occur at same time
      • breeding; gestation; farrowing; weaning; finishing
reproductive management35
Reproductive Management
  • Puberty ~ 6 months of age
  • First breeding ~ 8 months and 250 lbs – Why wait?
    • Increase litter size
    • Increase longevity of sow
  • Gestation Length?
    • 114 days
  • Litter size – born, born alive, and weaned?
    • ~11, 10 and 9, respectively
    • Why does this decrease?
      • Environmental, management (sizing litters), etc.
reproductive management36
Reproductive Management
  • Age at Weaning? or How long is lactation period?
    • 10 – 28 days
    • Peak lactation 21 d after farrowing – why wean so early?
      • Health of the baby pigs – Why?
      • Cheaper to feed directly than to feed sow to make milk
  • Rebreeding – when rebred for a second litter?
    • First insemination at 4-7 days post-weaning
    • Weaning synchronizes estrus
annual productivity of swine
Annual productivity of swine
  • Litters/sow/year?
    • Weaned at 2 weeks of age
    • Inseminated 7 days post – weaning
      • Assumes pregnant at 21 days post farrowing??

Lactation & Breeding 2

Lactation & Breeding 3

Breeding 1

Gestation 1 – 114 days

Gestation 2 – 114 days

Gestation 3

Jan

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

June

July

Months

annual productivity of swine38
Annual productivity of swine
  • Litters/sow/year?
    • Three 114 d gestations and three 21 d post partum periods = 405 days = 1.11 year for 3 litters
    • = 3/1.11 or 2.7 litters/year

Lactation & Breeding 2

Lactation & Breeding 3

Breeding 1

Gestation 1 – 114 days

Gestation 2 – 114 days

Gestation 3

Jan

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

June

July

Months

annual productivity of swine39
Annual productivity of swine
  • Litters/sow/year?
    • Three 114 d gestations and three 21 d post partum periods = 405 days = 1.11 year for 3 litters
    • = 3/1.11 or 2.7 litters/year
  • In a perfect herd of 100 sows
    • 100 sows x 2.7 litters/sow x 10 pigs/litter = 2700 pigs/year
  • Is this what happens in the industry??
annual productivity of swine40
Annual productivity of swine
  • Factors that affect # pigs produced?
    • Age at weaning?
    • Culling rate?
    • # pigs weaned/sow
  • In a realistic situation, often have a 30% culling rate for each gestation. e.g.
    • 100 sows x 10 pigs/litter = 1000 pigs from first gestation
    • 70 sows x 10 pigs/litter = 700 pigs from second gestation
    • 49 sows x 10 pigs/litter = 490 pigs from third gestation
  • This equals 2190 pigs/1.11 years, or 1980 pigs/year
annual productivity of swine41
Annual productivity of swine
  • Dr. Moeller’s lecture
    • 9.2 pigs/litter, 2.15 litters/year = 19.8 pigs/sow/year
    • 100 sows = 1980 pigs/year
health management
Health Management
  • Disease PREVENTION
    • Antibiotic feed additives
      • ie. Mecadox, Tylan, etc.
    • Vaccinations
    • Biosecurity
      • Minimize disease transmission by:
        • Limited introduction of new animals - AI
        • Shower in – shower out
        • vehicles, equipment, rodents, flies, etc.
nutritional management
Nutritional Management
  • Monogastric – Limited ability to digest fiber
  • Finely ground feed or pellets
  • Typical ration ingredients:
    • Corn – energy
    • Soybean meal – protein (lysine 1st limiting)
    • Dicalcium phosphate; limestone – Ca, P
    • Vitamin, Trace mineral premix
nutritional management44
Nutritional Management
  • Boars & gestating females
    • Restricted & individual feeding
  • Lactating sows
    • Increased energy & protein
    • Minimize weight loss
  • Nursing piglets
    • Creep feed
nutritional management45
Nutritional Management
  • Weaned (Nursery) pigs
    • 20-22% protein (dried plasma; whey)
    • Affects health & performance later
  • Grower (Finisher) Pigs
    • maximize growth
      • energy & protein
    • ad libitum
      • always feed available