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SOUND - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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SOUND SOUND KEY TOPICS NATURE OF SOUND AUDIO SPECTRUM RESONANCE & FORCED VIBRATION INTERFERENCE REFLECTION & REFRACTION SOUND SOUND ANIMATION DEMO SOUND LONGITUDINAL WAVES ON A SLINKY DEMO SOUND SOUND IS THE COHERENT VIBRATIONS OF ATOMS OR MOLECULES IN SOLIDS, LIQUIDS AND GASSES.

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Presentation Transcript
sound2
SOUND
  • KEY TOPICS
    • NATURE OF SOUND
    • AUDIO SPECTRUM
    • RESONANCE & FORCED VIBRATION
    • INTERFERENCE
    • REFLECTION & REFRACTION
sound3
SOUND
  • SOUND ANIMATION
  • DEMO
sound4
SOUND
  • LONGITUDINAL WAVES ON A SLINKY
  • DEMO
sound5
SOUND
  • SOUND IS THE COHERENT VIBRATIONS OF ATOMS OR MOLECULES IN SOLIDS, LIQUIDS AND GASSES.
  • INCOHERENT VIBRATIONS ARE CALLED HEAT.
activity
ACTIVITY
  • SOURCES OF SOUND
  • SOUND MEDIA
sound7
SOUND

SOUND SPECTRUM

INFRASOUND < 20 HZ

  • AUDIBLE SOUND > 20 HZ
      • AND < 20 KHZ

DEMO

ULTRASOUND >20 KHZ

sound8
SOUND
  • The PHET simulator “SOUND” can be used to demonstrate sounds up to 1kHz.
activity9
ACTIVITY
  • HARRY’S SOUND SORT
  • SORTING SOUNDS
sound10
SOUND
  • THE SPEED OF SOUND IN AIR IS APPROXIMATELY
    • 330 m/s
    • 1000 ft/s DEMO
  • THIS IS ALSO DESIGNATED MACH 1
  • THE SPEED DEPENDS ON TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE AND HUMIDITY
sound11
SOUND
  • IF ONE SEES A LIHTNING FLASH AND 15 SECONDS LATER, HEARS THE THUNDER, THEN THE DISTANCE TO THE FLASH IS _______ MILES.
  • A. 3
  • B. 15
  • C. 1
  • D. 30
resonance
RESONANCE
  • VIBRATING AT A NATURAL FREQUENCY
  • ENERGY CAN BE TRANSFERRED EFFICIENTLY TO A VIBRATING OBJECT VIA RESONANCE.

DEMO

resonance13
RESONANCE
  • The Tacoma Narrows bridge collapse is one of the most dramatic examples of resonance.
  • DEMO
resonance14
RESONANCE
  • RESONANCE IS USED TO PRODUCE MUSICAL NOTES WITH A DEFINITE FRQUENCY.
  • EXAMPLES OF VIBRATING OBJECTS
      • STRINGS
      • AIR COLUMNS
      • SURFACES (DRUMS) DEMO
activity15
ACTIVITY
  • Singing Rod
  • Wine Glass
  • Corrugated Horn
activity16
ACTIVITY
  • RUBBER BAND GUITAR
  • CHANGES IN FREQUENCY
  • CLIP NOTES
forced vibration
FORCED VIBRATION
  • VIBRATING AT A NON-RESONANT FREQUENCY
  • IT IS OFTEN APPLIED TO THE AMPLIFICATION OF SOUND
activity18
ACTIVITY
  • CHICKEN CLUCKER
musical sounds
MUSICAL SOUNDS
  • DIATONIC SCALE
    • POPULAR IN EARLY WESTERN EUROPEAN MUSIC (VOCAL)
    • AN OCTAVE CONTAINED THE FAMILIAR PATTERN OF
      • DO RE ME FA SO LA TI DO
      • C D E F G A B C
      • THE DO AT THE END OF THE OCTAVE HAD TWICE THE FREQUENCY OF THE DO AT THE BEGINNING
      • FREQUENCIES ARE WHOLE NUMBER RATIOS OF EACH OTHER
musical sounds20
MUSICAL SOUNDS
  • EQUITEMPERED SCALE
    • THE FREQUENCY OF EACH NOTE IS OBTAINED FROM THE NEXT SMALLER NOTE BY MULTIPLYING BY THE TWELTH ROOT OF TWO (1.059463)
    • EACH OCTAVE HAS THIRTEEN NOTES
    • THE NOTES ARE
      • C C# D D# E F F# G G# A A# B C
      • THE SHARPS ARE THE BLACK KEYS ON A PIANO
activity21
ACTIVITY
  • NOTE BEATERS
sound interference
SOUND INTERFERENCE
  • The PHET simulator “SOUND” can be used to show the superposition of sound from two different sources.
beats
BEATS
  • THE INTERFERENCE OF SOUND FROM TWO DIFFERENT SOURCES
  • IT IS MOST NOTICEABLE WHEN THE FREQUENCY AND LOUDNESS OF THE SOUNDS ARE SIMILAR
  • THE BEAT FREQUENY IS CALCULATED BY TAKING THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE TWO FREQUENCIES

fb = fl - fs

activity25
ACTIVITY
  • BEATS WITH TWO TUNING FORKS
quality
QUALITY

THE QUALITY OF A SOUND IS DETERMINED BY THE INTENSITY OF THE HARMONICS PRESENT.

quality27
QUALITY

The PHET simulator “FOURIER: MAKING WAVES” can be used to show how the quality can be changed by varying the harmonics present.

pitch
PITCH
  • THE AUDITORY PERCEPTION OF FREQUENCY
reflection of sound
REFLECTION OF SOUND
  • REVERBERATION
      • RE-REFLECTED SOUND THAT OCCURS IN CONFINED AREAS SO THAT THE REFLECTED SOUND CAN NOT BE DISTINGUISHED FROM THE SOURCE
      • EXAMPLE - EMPTY ROOM
reflection of sound30
REFLECTION OF SOUND
  • ECHO

THE SOUND IS THAT NORMALLY REFLECTED OUTSIDE OR IN LARGE ENCLOSED AREAS SO THAT THE REFLECTED SOUND CAN BE DISTINGUISHED FROM THE SOURCE.

sound refraction
SOUND REFRACTION
  • THE CHANGE IN THE DIRECTION OF TRAVEL OF A SOUND WAVE DUE TO CHANGES IN ITS SPEED.
  • IT IS OFTEN CAUSED BY TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES IN THE AIR.
toys with sound
TOYS WITH SOUND
  • CAN YOU EXPALAIN HOW MUSICAL TOYS OR NOISE MAKERS PRODUCE OR CONTROL SOUND?