saw palmetto a dietary supplement megan erickson summer 2006
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Saw Palmetto: A Dietary Supplement Megan Erickson Summer 2006

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 24

Saw Palmetto: A Dietary Supplement Megan Erickson Summer 2006 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 366 Views
  • Uploaded on

Saw Palmetto: A Dietary Supplement Megan Erickson Summer 2006. Learning Objectives. Identify what is thought to be the active ingredients. Name the most common use for saw palmetto. Describe the two main mechanisms in which saw palmetto is thought to work.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Saw Palmetto: A Dietary Supplement Megan Erickson Summer 2006' - Leo


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Identify what is thought to be the active ingredients.
  • Name the most common use for saw palmetto.
  • Describe the two main mechanisms in which saw palmetto is thought to work.
  • Identify the conclusion of the most recent study performed with saw palmetto vs. a placebo for treating BPH.
  • Describe why saw palmetto is thought to be safe.
saw palmetto
Saw Palmetto
  • Also called: Serenoa repens, Sabal serrulata
  • Origin:
    • Ripe fruit of the plant
    • Grown in Southern United States
    • Taken as liquid extract, tablet, capsule, infusion, or tea
    • Extract most effective, tea least effective
saw palmetto1
Saw Palmetto
  • Active ingredient: Not fully known, but thought to be fatty acids and sterols, which are in highest concentration in extract form
    • USP suggests 70-95% fatty acids and .2-.5% sterols
  • Appropriate dose: 320 mg extract/day
  • One of 8 herbs in PC-SPES (PC=prostate cancer, SPES=hope)
  • Used in Europe much more than U.S.
    • U.S.: 1.1% of population or 2.5 million use saw palmetto
    • Germany: used in 90% of BPH treatment
    • Italy: used 5x more often
reported uses
Reported Uses
  • Used for its effects on the hormones testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT)
  • Most common: benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer, other urinary tract problems
    • One study found 11.8% of men with prostate cancer used saw palmetto, second highest use after vitamin E
  • Less common: chronic pelvic pain, bladder disorders, low libido, low sperm production, hair loss, hormone imbalances, bronchitis, cancer, diabetes, migraines, as an aphrodisiac, to build muscle, and increase breast size
benign prostatic hyperplasia bph
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
  • Prevelance: 6.5 million Caucasian men ages 50-79
  • Enlarged prostate due to increasing number of cells and inflammation which pushes against the urethra
  • Signs/symptoms: hesitancy, frequency, and urgency of urination, decreased force of stream, incomplete emptying of bladder, incontinence, nocturia
mechanism of action 5 alpha reductase inhibitor
Mechanism of Action: 5-alpha reductase inhibitor
  • 5-alpha reductase inhibitor converts testosterone to DHT
  • DHT causes an increase in cell proliferation of the prostate, thus enlarging the gland
  • Less conversion to DHT means less blood DHT and a decrease in cell proliferation
  • Other drugs: finasteride and dutasteride
mechanism of action alpha andrenergic receptor antagonist
Mechanism of Action: alpha-andrenergic-receptor antagonist
  • Blocks DHT from binding to andrenergic receptors on prostate
  • Less DHT enters the prostate causing less cell proliferation
  • Other drugs: terazosin and doxazosin
mechanism of action
Mechanism of Action
  • Other claims:
    • Has less adverse side effects than the prescription medications which include sexual dysfunction and decreasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
    • Decreases inflammation:
      • May decrease number of mast cells (involved with inflammation)
      • May inhibit cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase
symptom scoring methods
Symptom Scoring Methods
  • American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI) and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS)
  • Questionnaires used in many studies
  • Composed of seven frequency questions
  • Scores symptoms 0-35
  • http://godot.urol.uic.edu/~web/ASIS.html
  • http://www.usrf.org/questionnaires/AUA_SymptomScore.html
most recent study
Most Recent Study
  • Bent S, Kane C, Shinohara K, Neuhaus J, et al. Saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2006;354:557-568.
  • Randomized, double-blind, placebo trial
  • Subjects:
    • 225 men over 49 years of age
    • Moderate-severe symptoms according to American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI)
  • Design:
    • Study lasted 12 months
    • Subjects took 160 mg twice daily
    • Measured AUASI score, quality of life, prostate size, residual volume after voiding, PSA, creatinine, testosterone, and general health
most recent study results
Most Recent Study: Results
  • Significant decrease in AUASI scores for both groups
    • 0.68 for saw palmetto
    • 0.72 for placebo
  • No significant difference between groups for:
    • AUASI scores
    • peak urinary flow rate
    • prostate size
    • residual volume after voiding
    • quality of life
    • serum PSA, creatinine, and testosterone levels
    • adverse events (26 total, 8 saw palmetto group, 18 placebo)
most recent study conclusions
Most Recent Study: Conclusions
  • Clinically meaningful change in AUASI score should be at least 3 points, but this study showed a change of less than 1 point
  • Results did not significantly differ between men that started out with higher or lower AUASI scores
  • Saw palmetto is not an effective treatment for BPH
slide17
Carraro JC, Raynaud JP, Koch G, et al. Comparison of phytotherapy (Permixon) with finasteride in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia: a randomized international study of 1,098 patients. Prostate. 1996;29:231-240.
  • Randomized double-blind trial
  • Subjects:
    • 1,098 men over 50 years of age
    • Included only men with IPSS over 6, large prostate, urinary flow problems
  • Design:
    • Study lasted 6 months
    • Subjects took 160 mg saw palmetto twice daily or finasterde
    • Measured IPSS score, peak and mean urinary flow rates, quality of life, sexual function, prostate volume, residual volume after voiding, and PSA
slide18
Carraro JC, Raynaud JP, Koch G, et al. Comparison of phytotherapy (Permixon) with finasteride in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia: a randomized international study of 1,098 patients. Prostate. 1996;29:231-240.
  • Results:
    • 951 subjects completed the study
    • IPSS score: P: -37%, F: -39%
    • Quality of life: P: -38%, F: -41%
    • Sexual function: P: -6%, F: +9%
    • Peak urinary flow rate: P: 25%, F: 30%
    • Mean urinary flow: P: 15%, F: 20%
    • Prostate volume: P: -6%, F: -18%
    • PSA: P: 3%, F: -41%
    • All were statistically significant changes from baseline except sexual function and PSA of saw palmetto group
    • Saw palmetto and finasteride differed significantly in serum PSA, sexual function, and prostate size
slide19
Carraro JC, Raynaud JP, Koch G, et al. Comparison of phytotherapy (Permixon) with finasteride in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia: a randomized international study of 1,098 patients. Prostate. 1996;29:231-240.
  • Conclusions:
    • Both treatments are equally effective in treating BPH
    • There was no placebo given to determine if the results are due to placebo effect
    • Adverse events included hypertension, decreased libido, abdominal pain, and impotence in both groups
slide20
Wilt TJ, Ishani A, Stark G, MacDonald R, Lau J, Mulrow C. Saw palmetto extracts for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. JAMA. 1998;280:1604-1609.
  • Systematic review and meta-analysis
  • Subjects:
    • 18 studies included 2,939 men
  • Design:
    • Had to be longer than 30 days, average 9 weeks
    • Measured IPSS score, peak and mean urinary flow rates, prostate volume, residual volume after voiding, and nocturia
slide21
Wilt TJ, Ishani A, Stark G, MacDonald R, Lau J, Mulrow C. Saw palmetto extracts for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. JAMA. 1998;280:1604-1609.
  • Results:
    • Compared to finasteride, saw palmetto was just as good at relieving symptoms and associated with less sexual dysfunction
    • Compared to placebo, saw palmetto improved
      • Urinary tract symptoms: 28%
      • Nocturia: 25%
      • Peak urine flow: 24%
      • Mean urine flow: 28%
      • Residual volume: 43%
    • Adverse events were mild and comparable with placebo
      • Most common were sexual dysfunction and gastrointestinal irritations
other studies
Other Studies
  • BPH:
    • Non-blind study found effective in reducing the IPSS, quality of life, and maximum flow rate (2000)
    • Double blind study found only significant result was contracted prostatic epithelium tissues (2000)
    • Saw palmetto vs. finasteride: both lowered levels of DHT, but finasteride had a larger effect (2001)
  • Mechanism of Action:
    • Does not occupy adrenoreceptors in vivo
    • Decreases number of mast cells
    • No effect on cytochrome P450 system
safety
Safety
  • Studies showed no significant adverse effects
  • Side effects include constipation, decreased libido, headache, nausea, diarrhea, and gastrointestinal irritation
  • Did not effect cytochrome P450 system so drug interactions not a problem
  • Integrity may be a problem:
    • Found as much as 141% more and 97% less of supplement than reported (6 tested)
    • Fatty acid content 80.7-40.7% in 14 brands
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Saw palmetto is safe
  • Many studies found effectiveness when not blinded, not using a placebo, and performed in Europe where commonly prescribed
  • Studies blinded, using a placebo, and most recent study did not find effectiveness
  • The jury is still out? More comprehensive studies needed.
ad