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Salt Cedar

01/06. Who Am I?Coordinate with Weed

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Salt Cedar

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    1. 01/06 Salt Cedar/Russian Olive Control in Riparian Areas Slade Franklin Weed and Pest Coordinator Wyoming Department of Agriculture

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    3. 01/06 Noxious Weed Control in Wyoming Weed & Pest Districts One district per county (23 districts) Primary function: Implement an effective program on Designated weeds and pests. W.S. 11-5-105(a) Secondary function: Implement an effective program on Declared weeds and pests. W.S. 11-5-105(b)

    4. 01/06 Noxious Weed Control in Wyoming Designated weeds Districts MUST implement an effective program.

    5. 01/06 Noxious Weed Control in Wyoming Declared weeds Districts MAY participate in a control program Big Horn County 31 species (Russian Olive, Halogeton) Teton County 16 species (Russian Olive, Orange Hawkweed) Washakie County 27 species (Russian Olive, Squarrose knapweed, Yellowstar thistle) Hot Springs County 4 species (Russian Olive, wild oats)

    6. 01/06 Noxious Weed Control in Wyoming Why do we care? Economic loss (examples) Leafy spurge costs producers and taxpayers an estimated $144 million a year in just four states alone (Montana, Wyoming and North and South Dakota). Field bindweed can reduce crop yields 50-60% by dense infestations. Heavy infestations of Canada thistle growing in corn, soybeans and wheat have been shown to reduce yields by 81%, 95% and 60%, respectively. Heavy infestations growing in pasturelands can reduce native grasses production by as much as 60%. It is estimated that $16 - $44 million dollars of hydropower generation is lost annually due to the salt cedar invasion in the United States.

    7. 01/06 Noxious Weed Control in Wyoming Why do we care? Environmental (examples) Noxious key word. On National Forest System (NFS) lands, an estimated 6-7 million acres are currently infested and potentially increasing at a rate of 8 to 12% per year. On Federal lands in the Western United States, it is estimated that weeds occur on more than 17 million acres Threatened and endangered species, including the bog turtle in the northeastern US, are impacted by monotypic stands of purple loosestrife that replace native vegetation. Sage grouse population declines may be linked to invasion of noxious weeds such as cheatgrass. Salt cedar consumes water on average 35% more rapidly than native vegetation, causing the water table to drop, and lowering the level of lakes. Spotted knapweed infestations in some areas of Montana have reduced winter elk forage by 50- 90%.

    8. 01/06 Noxious Weed Control in Wyoming Why do we care? Human impacts Giant Hogweed - the sap can produce painful, burning blisters within one to two days of contact Vipers bugloss, Larkspur, Poison Hemlock contact dermatitis for humans Leafy spurge causes severe eye irritation and possibly blindness in humans

    9. 01/06 Salt Cedar

    10. 01/06 Salt Cedar History Native to Southwestern Asia Eight Species have been introduced in the US since 1823 Planted as wind breaks and stream bank stabilization Escaped cultivation by 1870 By 1920 was becoming a serious problem in the southwest

    11. 01/06 Salt Cedar Identification Shrubby bush or tree that can range in size from 5 to 20 feet tall The bark is a reddish brown The leaves are small and flat and resemble evergreen shrubs Flowers are pink to white in color Long woody taproot

    12. 01/06 Salt Cedar Why is it a problem? Increases soil salinity Secrets salt inhibiting native plant growth Creates a monoculture Increased wildfire frequency Readily burnable Capable of thriving in post-fire conditions Increased frequency and tendency of flooding Impede high flows Restriction of water ways increases sedimentation

    13. 01/06 Salt Cedar Why is it a problem? Water Consumption Depends mainly on ground water ONE healthy mature plant uses approx. 80 to 120 gallons of water a day. Twice as much as most native plants The average household water use 69.3 gallons per person

    14. 01/06 Salt Cedar Water Availability University of Kansas Quantifying ground-water savings by tamarisk control (2005 Kluitenberg) 35-40% reduction of ground water use. Pecos River, Texas below the New Mexico State line Preliminary analysis indicates saltcedar control may yield as much as a 60% to 70% reduction in water loss Eagle Borax Works Springs Death Valley 8 weeks post controlled burn water raised 1.2 feet and ponds reappeared after being absent for 20 years Spring Lake, New Mexico Salt Cedar dried up a 13 acre lake by 1968, after herbicide control in 1989 water table returned

    15. 01/06 Salt Cedar Wyoming 122,000 acres Big Horn 50,000 Laramie, Sublette, Converse <1 Colorado 55,000 acres New Mexico 500,000 acres Kansas 50,000 acres 2000 study showed that it was more economically feasible to combat salt cedar than to look for alternative mechanisms to obtain water. (Zalaveta 2000)

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    18. 01/06 Noxious Weed Control in Wyoming Riparian Areas Salt Cedar Missouri River watershed Limited control options Produces over 100,000 seeds per shrub Over 100 million acres in the western U.S. Pecos River (Washington) could be dried up by 2010

    19. 01/06 Russian Olive

    20. 01/06 Russian Olive History Native to Southern Europe and Asia Introduced in US during colonial times Promoted for plantings in the west starting in 1906 It has been a popular shrub for windbreaks, shelterbelts and wildlife habitat in semi-arid and saline environments because of its adaptability. In the west, it was reported as escaping from cultivation in the 1940's to 1960's.

    21. 01/06 Russian Olive Identification Large, spiny deciduous tree Thorny branches Leaves are dull green to grey color Mature tree bark is rigid and wrinkled In summer blooms yellow flowers Berry like fruit Deep tap root

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    23. 01/06 Russian Olive Why is it a problem? Increased frequency and tendency of flooding Out competes native vegetation Highly invasive in riparian areas Considered inferior habitat for birds and fish Consumes high quantities of water then native plants Creates a monoculture

    24. 01/06 Russian Olive Very little is know about Russian Olive and water consumption. One New Mexico study suggests Russian olive evapotranspiration rates might by nearly double that of cottonwood. Most control observations closely associate it with a similar impact as Salt Cedar. Most research has been tied into Salt Cedar research

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    28. 01/06 State(s) where reported invasive*: AZ, CA, CO, CT, DE, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, MD, MI, MN, MT, NC, NE, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OK, OR, PA, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI *Information from Swearingen, J. 2006. WeedUS database, Alien Plant Invaders of Natural Areas. Plant Conservation Alliance, Alien Plant Working Group. http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/list/WeedUS.xls **Map generated by http://douweosinga.com/projects/visitedstates.

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    30. 01/06 Recent Activities Russian Olive Resolution Headwater Coalition North Platte River Mapping Inquiry Salt Cedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act Enacted 09/06 Sponsored by Rep. Pearce (NM) Co-sponsored Rep. Cubin (1 of 9) No Allocation

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    32. 01/06 Questions

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