prostate neoplasia n.
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  2. PROSTATE ANATOMY • fibromuscular tissue (30-50%) • glandular epithelial cells (50-70%) • peripheral zone (most cancers) • central zone • transition zone (BPH,low grade cancers)

  3. BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA • 17% of men age 50-59 (require Rx) • 27% of men age 60-69 (require Rx) • 35% of men age 70-79 (require Rx) • Similar crosscultural prevalence • Some genetic and racial susceptibility to symptom severity (autosomal dominant) • Diet high in saturated fats, zinc and low in fruits and vegetables. • Sedentary life style.

  4. BPHProposed Etiologies • Reawakening of the urogenital sinus to proliferate • Change in hormonal milieu with alterations in the testosterone/estrogen balance • Induction of prostatic growth factors • Increased stem cells/decreased stromal cell death

  5. BPHPathophysiology • Slow and insidious changes over time • Complex interactions between prostatic urethral resistance, intravesical pressure, detrussor functionality, neurologic integrity, and general physical health.

  6. BPH Pathophysiology • Initial hypertrophydetrussor decompensationpoor tonediverticula formationincreasing urine volumehydronephrosisupper tract dysfunction

  7. Impairment of size/force of stream Hesitancy Intermittency Terminal dribbling Incomplete emptying Nocturia Frequency Urgency Dysuria BPH SYMPTOMSObstructive and Irritative

  8. Other late presenting signs/symptoms • Abdominal/flank pain with voiding • Uremiafatigue,anorexia,somnolence • Hernias, hemorroids, bowel habit change • UTI’s • Bladder calculi • Hematuria

  9. Other Relevant History • GU History (STD, trauma, surgery) • Other disorders (eg. neurologic, diabetes) • Medications (anti-cholinergics) • Functional Status

  10. BPHClinical Findings • Late signs of renal failure ( eg. anemia, HTN) • Abdominal examhydronephrosis/pyelonephritis • GU exam hernia, stricture, phimosis, cancer • DRE a smooth enlargement, “non-palpable” nodularity with a loss of distinction between the lobes. A soft/firm consistency,underestimates enlargement, can’t feel seminal vesicles

  11. BPHDanger Signs on DRE • Firm to hard nodules • Irregularities, unequal lobes • Induration • Stony hard prostate • Any palpable nodular abnormality suggests cancer and warrants investigation

  12. AUA Score to assess sx severity but NOT for DDX DRE for prostate size, consistency,nodules, asymmetry, rectal tone and focused neuro exam Abdominal/GU exam UA, lytes (BUN,Creat.) PSA(interpret carefully) Uroflowmetry/residual urine measure Upper tract evaluation if hematuria, increased creatinine Ultrasound Cystoscopy Urine cytology BPHClinical Evaluation

  13. BPH SYMPTOMSDifferential Diagnosis • Urethral stricture • Bladder neck contracture • Carcinoma of the prostate • Carcinoma of the bladder • Bladder calculi • Urinary tract infection and prostatitis • Neurogenic bladder

  14. BPHNatural History • A progressive condition (usually) with histological onset in the 30’s and worse with age • A 50 yo has a 20-25% lifetime chance of needing a prostatectomy • A 40 yo who lives to 80 has a 30-40% chance of prostatectomy • But these numbers will change with new medical Rx and one third of patients improve on their own • Higher initial PSA’s predict faster growth and higher risk of acute urinary retention

  15. Severe obstruction Urinary retention Signs of upper tract dilatation and renal insufficiency Moderate symptoms of prostatism Recurrent UTI’s Hematuria Quality of life issues BPH TREATMENT INDICATIONSAbsolute vs Relative

  16. ONE POSSIBLE APPROACH(use cautiously)

  17. BPH TREATMENTNON-SURGICAL • Watchful waiting, AUA score < 7, 1/3 improve on own. • Herbal Phytotherapy (eg. Saw Palmetto) • Alpha-1-adrenergic antagonists (terazosin,doxazosin,tamsulosin,alfuzosin) • 5-Alpha-reductase inhibitors (finasteride,dutasteride) • Combination Rx most effective for most severe. • Medical Rx has likely reduced Medicare claims for BPH surgery by 50%.

  18. BPH TREATMENTSurgical • Indicated for AUA score >16 • Transurethral Prostatectomy(TURP): 18% morbidity with .2% mortality. 80-90% improvement at 1 year but 60-75% at 5 years and 5% require repeat TURP. • Transurethral Incision of Prostate (TUIP): less morbidity with similar efficacy indicated for smaller prostates. • Open Prostatectomy: indicated for glands > 60 grams or when additional procedure needed for suprapubic/retropubic approaches

  19. BPH TREATMENTNew Modalities • Minimally invasive: (Prostatic Stents,TUNA,TUMT, HIFU,Water-induced Thermotherapy) • Laser prostatectomy (VLAP,ILC,CLAP,TULIP,HoLRP) • Electrovaporization (TUVP,TVRP)

  20. PROSTATE CANCERIncidence/Prevalence • Most common cancer in men. In the year 2000, 200K men were diagnosed and 30K died from the disease. • 21% of all cancers. • Increased risk with age with 30% presenting between age 70-79 and 67% between age 80-89. • Slowly progressive (as a rule): low gradegood prognosis, high gradepoor prognosis, and moderate gradevariable prognosis.

  21. PROSTATE CANCERPossible etiologies/risk factors • Age is the most important risk factor. • Genetic predisposition/ racial and family history. • Diet risk: high animal fat, high zinc, low vegetable and low fish(omega-3 fatty acids) intake, low selenium intake, low fruit, low vegetable intake. • Hormonal risk: high testosterone, high insulin, and high insulin-like growth factor. • Low UV light exposure, high pesticide exposure. • No increase in risk with BPH or vasectomy. • ? Protection from ASA, statins.

  22. PROSTATE CANCERScreening • DRE: can detect tumors in the posterior and lateral aspects of the gland. Can detect extension. Accuracy depends on experience of examiner. • PSA: must be interpreted in clinical context, higher sensitivity and lower specificity than DRE. • Referral for TRUS and/or sextant biopsy if DRE or PSA abnormal. • PPV for PSA >4 or DRE is ~30%. • Screening is controversial. No consensus. Morbidity and mortality data inconclusive. Informed discussion with patient is essential.

  23. Prostate Cancer Screening ACP Discussion Points • Prostate cancer is an important health problem. • The benefits of one-time or repeated screening and aggressive treatment of prostate cancer have not yet been proven. • DRE and PSA measurements can have both false-positive and false-negative results. • The probability that further invasive evaluation will be required as a result of testing is relatively high. • Aggressive therapy is necessary to realize any benefit from the discovery of a tumor.

  24. Prostate Cancer Screening ACP Additional Discussion Points • A small but finite risk for early death and a significant risk for chronic illness, particularly with regard to sexual and urinary function, are associated with these treatments. • Early detection may save lives. • Early detection and treatment may avert future cancer-related illness.

  25. Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment(the key question) “is cure possible in those for whom it is necessary, and is cure necessary in those for whom it is possible?” Dr. Willet Whitmore, 1990

  26. AUA 2007 Annual Meeting “Men are presenting at a younger age and lower stage. We are seeing fewer and fewer biochemical recurrences, and when they do occur, they are less lethal. Thousands of papers support this.” Dr.. Anthony D’Amico, Dana Farber Cancer Center

  27. “Reasonable” Recommendations in 2007 for Prostate Screening • Yearly risk/benefit discussions for all men starting at age 50 who are expected to live 10 years. For blacks and those with + family hx start at 40-45. • If decision to screen: yearly DRE/PSA until co-morbidities/age (75) limit life expectancy to 10 yrs • Immediately refer if abnormal DRE or PSA>7. • Repeat PSA between 4 -7 several weeks later and refer if still >4. • If PSA <4, refer men who experience a PSA rise of more than .75 ng/mL/year (based on last three measurements obtained over 12 to 24 months).

  28. THE ROLE OF PSAPossible Refinements • Consider age and race adjustments. • PSA density(TRUS adjusted PSA). • PSA velocity (rate of change of PSA)(>.75 ng/mL/yr). • Free/Bound PSA values may be useful in separating elevations in PSA from BPH vs cancer. • Interval recommendations may change, depending on age and PSA level.

  29. More PSA Refinements • Delay performing test 48 hours after recent ejaculation or local trauma and wait at least 6 weeks after biopsy or TURP. • If PSA elevated wait 2-4 weeks and repeat to confirm. Some experts recommend antibiotics before repeat.

  30. PROSTATE CANCERSigns • Stony hard prostate. • Hematuria, hematospermia. • Irregular, firm, hard nodule on DRE. • Signs of obstructive uropathy/Rising AUA Score. • Neurologic cord compression signs. • Pathologic fractures/Bone pain. • Sudden onset of erectile dysfunction, painful ejaculation.

  31. PROSTATE CANCERDiagnosis • Prostate biopsy by FNA or Biopty. • 33-50% chance of biopsy being malignant. • Differential Diagnosis: BPH, chronic prostatitis, prostatic TB, old biopsy fibrosis, prostatic cysts, prostatic calculi.

  32. PROSTATE CANCERClinical Staging • DREsize, location, volume, local extension • TRUS/Endorectal coil MRIlocal extension • CT/ProstaScint Scanpre-op pelvic node assessment • Pelvic Lymphadenectomypelvic nodes • Other Tumor Markers • PSAhighest in transition zone tumors and well differentiated tumors. Its greatest value is in detecting recurrence • Bone Scanmets

  33. T1 are microscopic and non-palpable T2 are palpable but confined to gland T3 protrude beyond the gland capsule T4 are fixed and extend well beyond the gland Based on tumor histology Grade 1 Gleason is the most well-differentiated Grade 5 is the most poorly differentiated Combined scores are reported (primary +secondary)(2-10) PROSTATE CANCER STAGINGTMN Staging & Gleason Scale

  34. PROSTATE CANCERTreatment Options for Clinically Localized Disease • Radical prostatectomy • Radiation therapy (external beam or interstitial implantation) • Watchful Waiting • Possible hormonal therapy (ADT) is mostly used for locally advanced or metastatic disease. (Neoadjuvant ADT with Radiation may improve outcomes for men with intermediate/high pathological risk localized cancer.)

  35. MOST IMPORTANT TREATMENT ISSUES • Patient’s medical condition/age. • Gleason Grade and PSA. • Is it Organ Confined?/Stage. • Estimation of outcome for individual patient. • Potential side effects of treatments. • Greatest treatment benefit-> “moderate to poor grade cancers in younger, healthier age group.” • Least treatment benefit-> “lower grade cancers in older, sicker age group.”

  36. MOST IMPORTANT POINTS FOR THE FAMILY PRACTITIONER • For BPH: It is mostly a primary care disease for both diagnosis and treatment. Know the danger signs and when to refer. • For Prostate Cancer: Screening and Rx may be controversial, but something is making a difference. All patients deserve an informed discussion about options.