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英国文学史与选读 讲座课件. 汤富华 2004 年 3 月. 通过作品找意境,通过中西文学对比,让文学课升华至文化课,让我们的学生成为自己的主人。. Early and Medieval English Literature. Geoffrey Chaucer, the founder of English poetry, was born, about 1340, in London. He was the son of a wine merchant who had connections with the court. .

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英国文学史与选读

讲座课件

汤富华 2004年3月

slide2

通过作品找意境,通过中西文学对比,让文学课升华至文化课,让我们的学生成为自己的主人。通过作品找意境,通过中西文学对比,让文学课升华至文化课,让我们的学生成为自己的主人。

slide3

Early and Medieval English Literature

Geoffrey Chaucer, the founder of English poetry, was born, about 1340, in London. He was the son of a wine merchant who had connections with the court.

slide4

To be recited Compared with 《劝学篇》

Francis Bacon

“Of Studies”

slide5

Of Studies

Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight, is in privateness and retiring, for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment and disposition of business. For different expert man can execute, and perhaps judge of particulars, one by one; But the general courses and the plots and marshalling of affaires, come best from those that are learned. To spend too much time on study is sloth, to use them too much for ornament, is affectation, to make judgment only by their rules, is the humor of a scholar. They perfect nature and are perfected by experience, for nature abilities are like nature plants, that need to be pruning by study, and studies themselves do give forth directions too much at large.

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荀子·劝学

君子曰:学不可以已。青,取之于蓝,而青于蓝;冰,水为之,而寒于水。木直中绳,揉以为轮,其曲中规,虽有槁暴,不复挺者,輮使之然也。故木受绳则直,金就砾则利。君子博学而日参省乎己,则知明而行无过矣。

吾尝终日而思矣,不如须臾之所学也。吾尝跂而望矣,不如登高之博见也。登高而招,臂非加长也,而见者远。顺风而呼,声非加疾也,而闻者彰。假舆 马者,非利足也,而致千里。假舟辑者,非能水也,而绝江河。君子生非异也,善假于物也。

积土成山,风雨兴焉。积水成渊,蛟龙生焉。积善成德,而神明自得,圣心备焉。故不积跬步,无以至千里;不积小流,无以成江海。骐骥一跃,不能十步;驽马十驾,功在不舍。锲而舍之,朽木不折;锲而不舍,金石可镂。蚓无爪牙之利,筋骨之强,上食埃土,下饮黄泉,用心一也。蟹六跪而二螯,非蛇蟺之穴无可寄托者,用心躁也。

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Thomas More(1478-1535)

He was born in a middle-class family.his father was a prominent lawyer,and later a judge.A scholar by nature ,he became a lawyer.Quite early he was elected to Parliament and he acted as the spokesman of London merchants who were on e of the principal stays of the Tudor monarchy.

daniel defoe 1660 1731
Daniel Defoe: 1660-1731
  • Son of James and Mary Foe, a merchant family committed to Puritanism (Presbyterians)
  • Sound education at Morton’s Academy. Only Anglicans could graduate from Oxford or Cambridge.
  • 1684: Marries Mary Tuffley, an heiress with 3,700 a year.
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Fought briefly in the Duke of Monmouth’s rebellion against James II.
  • Bankruptcy and debt turned him towards writing.
  • 1701: writes “The True Born Englishman”
  • 1703: Pilloried for writing “The Shortest Way with Dissenters.”
defoe s robinson crusoe
Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe
  • 1719: First volume of Robinson Crusoe. A hit with lower and middle classes.
  • Based on the experience of Alexander Selkirk.
  • 1722: Moll Flanders. A novel that draws on his own experience in Newgate prison.
slide12

Samuel Johnson (1709—84)

lexicographer, critic and poet, was born in Lichfield, Stafforshire, the son of a poor bookseller. After studying at Oxford for little more than a year, he was forced to leave the university by poverty. Then followed his long struggle as a hack writer.

In 1741, some booksellers asked Johnson to compile a dictionary or the English language. It took him eight years to finish this enormous work, and in 1755 his “Dictionary” was published.

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Johnson thought that “all was false and hollow” despised the honeyed words, and wrote a letter to Lord Chestfield, saying “ when I had once addressed your lordship in public, I had exhausted all the art or pleasing which a retired and uncourtly scholar can possess.”

Letter to Lord Chestfield

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《最后的晚餐》 (意大利) 达 · 芬奇画

1495 - 1497年 米兰圣玛利亚·格拉契修道院藏

文艺复兴美术三杰

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《蒙娜丽莎》意大利 达 · 芬奇画 木板油画

77 × 53厘米1503 - 1505年巴黎卢浮尔宫博物馆藏

自画像

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《西斯廷教堂天顶画》局部 壁画 36·54×13·14米

米开朗期罗 (意大利) 梵帝冈西斯廷教堂藏 (1475 - 1564年)

西斯庭教堂内景

slide18

《椅中圣母》

(油画)

(意大利)

拉斐尔

(1514 - 1516年)

选自http://www.artsea.net

william shakespeare 1564 1616

William Shakespeare1564-1616

“All the world 's a stage,

And all the men and women

merely players.”

slide20
Born in Stratford
  • The 3rd of 8 kids
  • Married at age 18
      • (his wife was 26)
  • Worked as an actor
  • By 1594 at least 6

plays had been

published

comedies
Comedies
  • The Taming of the Shrew
  • Much Ado About Nothing
  • As You Like I
  • Twelfth Night
  • Midsummer Night’s Dream
tragedies
Tragedies
  • Hamlet
  • Romeo and Juliet
  • Othello
  • King Lear
  • Macbeth
slide26

Sonnet 18

William Shakespeare

Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?

Thou art more lovely and more temperate:

Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,

And summer’s lease hath all too short a date:

Sometime too hot the eye of the heaven shines

And often is his gold complexion dimmed;

And every fair from fair sometime declines,

By chance or nature’s changing course untrimmed;

But thy eternal summer shall not fade,

Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st;

Nor shall death brag thou wander’st in his shade,

When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st:

So long as a man can breathe, or eyes can see,

So long lives this, and this gives live to thee.

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致橡树

我如果爱你——/绝不学攀援的凌霄花,/借你的高枝炫耀自己;我如果爱你——/绝不学痴情的鸟儿,/为绿荫重复单调的歌曲;也不止像泉源/常年送来清凉的慰籍;/也不止像险峰,增加你的高度,/衬托你的威仪。/甚至日光/甚至春雨不,这些都还不够/我必须是你近旁的一株木棉,作为树的形像和你站在一起。/根,相握在地下;叶,相触在云里。/每一阵风吹过,我们都互相致意,但没有人/听懂我们的言语/你有你的铜枝铁干,像刀像剑也像戟;/我有我红硕的花朵,/像沉重的叹息,又像英勇的火炬/我们分担寒潮风雷霹雳;我们共享雾霭流岚虹霓;/仿佛永远分离,却又终身相依这才是伟大的爱情,/坚贞就在这里/爱/不仅爱你伟岸的身躯,也爱你坚持的位置,/足下的土地。

slide28

John Milton (1608—1674)

“Paradise Lost”

Its meaning of equity

Background:

John Milton, the greatest English poet after Shakespeare, was the one great literary figure who want tried seriously to combine Renaissance and Reformation. His rich stories of classical learning with revival of deep religious feeling.

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Milton’s work can be divided into three creative period. The first period was up to 1641, during which time he was to be seen chiefly as a son of the humanity and Elizabethans, although his Puritanism was not absent.

Milton is one of the very few truly great English writers who is also a prominent figure in politics and who is both a great poet and important prose writer.

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This cultural era is a continuation of, & overlaps with, the Enlightenment. Its characteristics include:
  • Romantic love
  • Liberalism and freedom
  • An upsurge of nationalism & patriotism
  • Sympathy for the poor & less fortunate.
  • An appreciation of nature
  • A fascination with horror
romantic artists
Romantic Artists
  • John Constable
  • J.M.W. Turner
  • Eugene Delacroix
  • J.F.Goya
romantic musicians
Romantic Musicians
  • Wolfgang Sebastian Bach
  • Ludwig von Beethoven “immortal beloved”
  • Johan Brahms; Frederic Chopin
  • Franz List; Peter Tchaikovsky
  • Franz Schubert; Richard Wagner
  • Guiseppi Verdi
romantic historians
Romantic Historians
  • Georg Hegel - Communism
  • Jules Michelet - Idealization of French history
  • George Bancroft - Divine Providence for USA
  • Thomas Carlyle - Great Men theory
  • Thomas Billington McCaulay - British history
  • Heinrich von Treitschke - German nationalism
first manned balloon flight
First manned Balloon Flight
  • A 70 ft. tall balloon scended in Paris in November, 1783.
  • It traveled 7 & 1/2 miles in 26 minutes; and reached a height of 3000 feet.
slide41

Romantic Authors

Robert Burns (1759—?)

“A Red, Red Rose”

“Auld Lang Syne”

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抒发情怀是文人墨客的做派,同时也是所有读书人表达对时事,人生百态的观点的最好的一种方式。中西文化在这一点上是完全相同的。抒发情怀是文人墨客的做派,同时也是所有读书人表达对时事,人生百态的观点的最好的一种方式。中西文化在这一点上是完全相同的。

slide43

Burns的A Red, Red Rose是一首难得的好情诗。Auld Lang Syne.更是成了全世界家喻户晓的好歌,很像中国的王洛宾的那首《在那遥远的地方》。其实,抒发像Auld Lang Syne这种韵味,无论哪个民族都有,如《月光下的凤尾竹》由施光南作曲,云南傣族人用葫芦丝演奏的曲调也有异曲同工的效果。

要启发学生读进文学作品,同时也要走出文学作品,将作品给予的启发和感受时刻与现实生活相联系。更要通过阅读脍炙人口的作品提高个人的修养。

herbert schiller
Herbert Schiller
  • German romanticist who idealized heroic deeds and struggles for freedom.
sir walter scott
Sir Walter Scott
  • Author of Ivanhoe & Rob Roy.
  • Romantic themes included Scottish nationalism & independence.
samuel taylor coleridge
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
  • Used images of phantoms and terrors arising from the depths of the emotions.
  • Author of The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.
slide50

William Wordsworth

principal poem:

We are seven

Lines Written in Early Spring

To the cuckoo

I Wondered lonely as a cloud

The Solitary Reaper

Intimations or Immortality

The Prelude

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I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud

----William Wordsworth

1

2

I wandered lonely as a cloud

That floats on high o’er vales and hills,

When all at once I saw a crowd,

A host, of golden daffodils;

Beside the lake, beneath the tress,

Fluttering and dance in the breeze.

Continuous as the stars that shine

And twinkle on the milky way,

They stretched in the never-ending line

Along the margin of a bay;

Ten thousand say I at a glance,

Tossing their heads in sprightly dance.

3

4

The waves beside them danced; but they

Outdid the sparkling waves in glee;

A poet could not but be gay,

In such a jocund company;

I gazed – and gazed – but little thought

What wealth the show to me had brought:

For oft, when on my couch I lie

In vacant or in pensive mood,

They flash upon that inward eye

Which is the bliss of solitude;

And then my heart with pleasure fills,

And dance with the daffodils.

slide52

再别康桥

徐志摩

那树荫下的一潭,不是清泉,是天上虹揉碎在浮藻间,沉淀着彩虹似的梦。寻梦?撑一支长篙,向青草更青处漫溯,满载一船星辉,在星辉斑斓里放歌但我不能放歌,悄悄是别离的笙箫;夏虫也为我沉默,沉默是今晚的康桥!悄悄的我走了,正如我悄悄的来;我挥一挥衣袖,不带走一片云彩。

轻轻的我走了,正如我轻轻的来;我轻轻的招手,作别西天的云彩。

那河畔的金柳是夕阳中的新娘波光里的艳影,在我的心头荡漾。软泥上的青荇,油油的在水底招摇;在康河的柔波里,我甘心做一条水草

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徐志摩是20世纪初中国杰出的诗人、散文家,是一个值得敬佩和怀念的名字。他不仅在五四新文学史上是“新月社”的巨挚、“新月诗派”的祭酒, 在新文学创作上所发射的光芒,如日中天,久而不晦; 而且他风流、浪漫的人生,同样是那样传奇瑰丽, 又富有诗情画意,可与中国的李商隐、温庭绚、杜牧,英国的拜伦、雪莱、济慈相媲美。悲喜交织的爱情,放荡不羁的生活,外圆内方的交际,惊世骇俗的创作,绝顶天才的智慧,卑己自牧的性格,浪迹天涯的漫游,构成了徐志摩的卓尔不群,更为中国文坛平添了不少佳话。

slide55

徐志摩原名章垿, 号志摩,浙江海宁人。1920 年获美国哥伦比亚大学社会学硕士,后转英国剑桥大学取得特别生资格,在王家学院随意选课听讲。从此他抛弃了以往攻读的社会学、经济学,改学文学,他的思想和生活发生了很大变化。徐志摩在剑桥期间致力于西洋文学的钻研,历时两年。这个时期,他的感情如山洪暴发,生命受到一种伟大力量的震撼。缤纷的花雨,不成熟的意念,新诗的心境,我们可以从他的那篇《想飞》看出这时候他思想生活的轨迹。这时的徐志摩已由一个单纯的爱国青年, 转变成为一个浪漫诗人,并创立了 “生活是艺术”的所谓“艺术的人生观”。

slide56

刘心皇曾这样评价说,徐志摩之所以可爱,除了徐志摩绝没有一般文人的小气、多疑、嫉妒、搬弄是非,或是今日连甲攻乙 , 明日连丙攻甲……的毛病之外 , 尤其在于(1) 性格好:热情诚挚,淳朴天真,有赤子之心,是一团同情,是一团爱。(2)对朋友好:他有同情心,是朋友之间的连锁。(3)对一般人好:他对任何人任何事绝没有怨恨,永不恨人,也永想不到人会恨他。(4)极风趣:很自然地讨人欢喜 , 他一生决不让人苦闷。这是对徐志摩其人的一个极好的概括,入微入妙,逼真逼肖。

摘自:《风流才子——徐志摩》

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O blithe new-comer! I have heard, I hear thee and rejoice. O Cuckoo! shall I call thee Bird,Or  but a wandering Voice?While I am lying on the grassThy twofold shout I hear;From hill to hill it seems to passAt once far off, and near.

The same whom in my schoolboy daysI listened to; that CryWhich made me look a thousand waysIn bush, and tree, and sky.To seek thee did I often roveThrough woods and on the green;And thou wert still a hope, a love;Still longed for, never seen.

And I can listen to thee yet;Can lie upon the plainAnd listen, till I do begetThat golden time again.O blessed Bird! the earth we paceAgain appears to beAn unsubstantial, faery place;That is fit home for thee!

Though babbling only to the Vale,Of sunshine and of flowers,Thou bringest unto me a taleOf visionary hours.Thrice welcome, darling of the Spring!Even ye thou art to meNo bird, but an invisible thing,A voice a mystery;

george gordon lord byron 1788 1824
George Gordon, Lord Byron: 1788-1824
  • Acquires his title at age 10 from his great-uncle the “Wicked Lord Byron.”
  • Moves with his mother to Newstead Abbey, near Nottingham
  • 1801: attends Harrow
  • 1805: Cambridge
  • Meets his half sister Augusta during this period.
  • 1807: First volume of poetry Hours of Idleness.
byron 1807 1815
Byron: 1807-1815
  • 1807: Byron departs on his grand tour—to Lisbon, Spain, Greece and Albania. Begins work on Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage.
  • 1810: Visits Turkey.
  • 1811: At 24, Byron returns to London.
  • 1812: The first two cantos of Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage published.
  • 1814: The Corsair
  • 1815: Hebrew Melodies
the mad bad and dangerous lord byron
The “mad-bad- and dangerous” Lord Byron
  • Liaisons with Lady Caroline Lamb; Lady Oxford.
  • Scandal and gossip about his relationship with Augusta, whose child is named Medora (heroine of The Corsair).
  • 1815: Marries Annabella Milbanke.
  • Annabella leaves a few weeks after the birth of Augusta Ada
byron 1816 1819
Byron: 1816-1819
  • 1816: Byron settles in Geneva, near Percy and Mary Shelley, and Claire Clairmont.
  • 1817: begins work on Manfred. Leaves for Venice. Continues work on the third and fourth cantos of Childe Harold.
  • Sells Newstead Abbey for £ 94,500
  • 1819: First two cantos of Don Juan.
byron 1819 1824
Byron: 1819-1824
  • 1819: Meets Countess Teresa Guiccioli and her Carbonari family.
  • 1821: Publishes another mystery play, Cain.
  • Robert Southey follows with his comment on “the Satanic School.”
  • Byron publishes The Vision of Judgment a rebuttal to Southey.
  • 1823: Joins the Greek war of independence.
  • Falls ill in 1824 and dies in April at the age of 36.
the byronic hero
The Byronic Hero
  • Goethe’s Faust Part one is published in 1808.
  • In Geneva, Byron meets M.G. Lewis author of The Monk who translates Faust.
  • Part Two of Goethe’s Faust is published posthumously in 1832.
  • The figure of Goethe’s Euphorion is based on Byron.
  • Goethe: “Byron is not antique and is not romantic, but he is the present day itself. Such a one I had to have. Moreover, he was just my man on account of his unsatisfied nature and of his warlike bent, which led him to his doom at Missolonghi.”
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She walks in Beauty

She walks in beauty, like the night  

Of cloudless climes and starry skies; 

And all that 's best of dark and bright   

Meet in her aspect and her eyes: 

Thus mellow'd to that tender light

 Which heaven to gaudy day denies.

One shade the more, one ray the less,  

 Had half impair'd the nameless grace 

Which waves in every raven tress,   

Or softly lightens o'er her face;

Where thoughts serenely sweet express   

How pure, how dear their dwelling-place.  

And on that cheek, and o'er that brow, 

So soft, so calm, yet eloquent, 

The smiles that win, the tints that glow,

But tell of days in goodness spent, 

A mind at peace with all below,  

A heart whose love is innocent!

slide65

Percy Bysshe Shelley(1792-1822)

“Ode To The West Wind”

“Ozymandias”

slide68

Make me thy lyre, even as the forest is: What if my leaves are falling like its own?The tumult of thy mighty harmoniesWill take from both a deep autumnal tone,Sweet though in sadness. Be thou, Spirit fierce,My spirit! Be thou me, impetuous one!Drive my dead thoughts over the universe,Like wither’d leaves, to quicken a new birth;And, by the incantation of this verse,Scatter, as from an unextinguish’d hearthAshes and sparks, my words among mankind!Be through my lips to unawaken’d earthThe trumpet of a prophecy! O Wind,If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?

Ode to the West Wind

Chart 5

slide70

John Keats(1795-1821)

“To Autumn”

Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness,Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun;Conspiring with him how to load and blessWith fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves run;To bend with apples the mossed cottage-trees,And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core;To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shellsWith a sweet kernel; to set budding more,And still more, later flowers for the bees,Until they think warm days will never cease,For Summer has o'er-brimmed their clammy cells.

slide71

Who hath not seen thee oft amid thy store?Sometimes whoever seeks abroad may findThee sitting careless on a granary floor,Thy hair soft-lifted by the winnowing wind;Or on a half-reaped furrow sound asleep,Drows'd with the fume of poppies, while thy hookSpares the next swath and all its twinéd flowers:And sometimes like a gleaner thou dost keepSteady thy laden head across a brook;Or by a cider-press, with patient look,Thou watchest the last oozings hours by hours.

slide72

Where are the songs of Spring? Ay, where are they?Think not of them, thou hast thy music too,—While barréd clouds bloom the soft-dying day,And touch the stubble-plains with rosy hue;Then in a wailful choir the small gnats mournAmong the river sallows, borne aloftOr sinking as the light wind lives or dies;And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn; Hedge-crickets sing; and now with treble softThe red-breast whistles from a garden-croft;And gathering swallows twitter in the skies.

slide73

Http://www.englishstory.net/byron.html

提供拜伦的生平、年谱、诗选、书信选、图像以及诗人同时代人和文学批评家对诗人的评论,还有相关的链接。

Http://www.cas.astate.edu/engphil/gallery/byron.html

提供拜伦的生平、书信和日记全篇以及相关站点链接。

Http://www.bartleby.com/139/

提供雪莱的生平和诗歌全集。

slide74

Http://www.libary.utoronto.ca/utel/rp/authors/shelly.html

提供雪莱诗选和散文选。

Http://www.englishhistory.net/keats.html

提供济慈的生平、年谱、诗选、书信选、图像、诗人同时代人和文学批评家对诗人的评论以及有关济慈的学术论文,还有相关站点链接。

Http://www.bl.uk/exhibitions/keats

提供济慈生平、诗选、诗歌朗诵及图像等

slide76

Dickens’ Novels

  • The First Period
  • “Sketches by Boz”
  • 1836-37 “Pickwick Papers”
  • 1837-38 “Oliver Twist”
  • 1838-39 “Nicholas Nickleby”
  • 1840-41 “Old Curiosity Shop”
  • “Barnaby Rudge”
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The Second Period

1842 “American Notes”

1843-45 “Martin Chuzzlewit”

1843 “A Christmas Carol” (a Christmas book)

1844 “The Chimes” (a Christmas book)

1845 “The Cricket on the Hearth” (a Christmas book)

1846-48 “Dombey AND Son”

1849-50 “David Copperfield”

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The Third Period

1852-53 “Bleak House”

1854 “Hard Time”

1855-57 “Little Dorrit”

1859 “A Tale of Two Cites”

1860-61 “Great Expectations”

1864-65 “Our Mutual Friend”

1870 “Edwin Drood”

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Http://www.helsinki.fi/kasv/nokol/dickens.html

提供狄更斯的生平、创作以及各种评论。

Http://landow.stg.brown.edu/victorian/dickens/dickensov.html

提供英国维多利亚时代社会历史、政治面貌和宗教习俗以及狄更斯小说的文学意想、人物肖像和叙述结构等。

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Jane Austen(1775—1817)

“Pride and Prejudice”

“Sense and Sensibility”

“Emma”

“Persuasion”

“Mansfield Park”

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Jane Austen(1775—1817)

“Pride and Prejudice”

It is the story of a young girl who rejects an offer of marriage because the young nobleman who makes it has been rude to her family. It is a very plot but around it the authoress has woven vivid pictures or the everyday life of simple country society.

Purpose: ask the students to read novels of the time that they clearly get aware of it. Like the time economy, history and persons. Also a lot of incidents which are related to them. Only on the base if through understanding the history with regards to economic, military and even climatic change or development can we fully understand the hero or the heroing of the literatural world.

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Besides this we should compare them with present time if the time of our own culture. Like Victorian age and late Qing Dynasty, students should know Chao Xueqin, Lin Zhenxu. Also some questions should be raised always in the mind. Why Victorian Age was so powerful in terms of her economic and military and industrial development.

Assignment: A essay on Tess of the D’Urbervilles, Jane Eyre, Pride and Prejudice.

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1.

Through all the writing practice students can get more benefits in narration .

Talks and discussion on Tess would set people thinking.

Suppose Tess’s happy ending. What it would be like?

Ask students to prepare imagined ending.

hoping Tess will happily live with Angel and with the baby growing healthily.

2.

Other novelists of the Victorian Age:

Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell(1818—1865). She has a strong sympathy for the workers.

Masterpiece: Cranford , Marry Barton , Biography of Charlotte Bronte

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Jane Austen completed six novels, Northanger Abbey, Persuasion, Sense and Sensibility, Pride and Prejudice, Mansfield Park, and Emma.

Her novels were published anonymously owing to the prejudice prevailing at the time concerning the writing of novels by a lady.

Living a quiet life in the countryside, she kept her eyes steadily upon the people and incidents about herm, and wrote the small part of the world she lived in.

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“Pride and Prejudice” has been the most widely read among them. Austen began to write it when she was 21.But the manuscript “went begging” for 16 years at the doors of publishers before it was published in 1813.It is the story of a young girl who rejected an offer of marriage because the young nobleman who makes it has been rude to her family. It is a very thin plot, but around it the authoress has woven vivid pictures if the everyday life of simple country society.

Through description id the daily talks and doings of the young men and the women. Austen paints their characters. She is at her best in writing about young girls, because she understood them astonishingly well.

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Victorian Age

Queen Victorian was the ruler of English from 1837 to 1901, so it is customary to call the writing produced during this long stretch or years Victorian literature.

Three phases: the Early Victorian Period (1832—1848), a time of troubles: the Mid—Victorian Period(1848—1870), a time of economic prospering and religious controversy; and the Last Period(1870—1901), a time characterized by decay of Victorian values.

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试图以历史学观察中国文化、经济、政治、军事的发展史兼与英国同时期的文学作品作比较。试图以历史学观察中国文化、经济、政治、军事的发展史兼与英国同时期的文学作品作比较。

维多利亚时期的世纪人物: 马克思、亚当斯密、达尔文、狄更斯、萨克雷、哈代.

中国该时代的人物有慈禧、曹雪芹、林则徐、魏源。

细目:1、以英国为首的资本主义大扩张

2、工人的生活条件和宪章运动

3、改革

4、达尔文的进化论

5、妇女问题

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维多利亚时期的文学

乐观主义与悲观主义者:

Charles Dickens

David Copperfield

William Makepeace

Thomas Hardy

Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell

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Victorian Poetry

维多利亚时期的诗歌

Alfred Lord Tennyson

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“Jane Erye”

透析Jane与Helen的对话中善与恶的启蒙思想,两人对Helen的不同看法,展示了人群的价值观“善为先”如Jane眼中Temple 是可恶的,而Helen如此:Miss Temple is full of goodness. She guilty tells me of my mistakes , and praises me if I do well.

Jane在成长的变化中已是显露出起善念的转变。Jane的婶子Mrs. Reed在临死前与Jane的对话又可看出其善念开始下降。

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“Why did I never hear of this? I asked, amaze. I hated you so much that I wrote back to him, telling him you had died o typhus fever at Lowood. That was my revenge on you, for causing me so much trouble!” She cried angrily.

“Dear aunt,” I said, “don’t think about that any more…

解释:从 Jan对 Rochester的求婚的对白试图说明男女之间情爱的追求和人生命赋义。

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Thomas Hardy(1840—1928).

Novelist and poet, is one o the representatives of English critical realism at the turn of the 19th century. He was born in Dorset, a southern country of England, which he called Wessex in his books.

Hardy wrote prodigiously. His principal works are the Wessex Novel. i.e. the novels describing the characters and environment of his native countryside. They include “Under the Greenwood Tree”. Far from Madding Crowd. The Mayor of Casterbridge. Jude the obscure.

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Thomas Hardy

“Tess of the D’Urbervilles”

Questions: the modern meaning o female problem; women’s liberation .

Is there still a Tess around you?

There figure Alec, Angel Clare, talker of Tess , are good people.

一百年前的人物在现实社会中的意义,从Tess的悲剧看爱情的宿命和幸福的乌托邦。思考该小说对学生的生活指导意义。

Tess是悲剧的总和,从Alec和Angel的来往,对女性的看法沿袭了古代的做法。

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Lecture with Debate:

Talks

Topic :Comparison between Charles Dickens and William Makepeace Thackeray

The coincidence of the same birth period of the two great novelists

The main idea or rough impression of the two.

Why you like either of them?

Thackeray, borrowing Bunyan’s idea “Vanity city ” regard the circle o petty bourgeois and aristocratic society as Vanity Faire, a faire where should sold all sorts of vanity.

Therefore, at this faire are all such merchandise sold, as horses, lands , trades, places, honors, preferments, titles countries, Kingdoms, lusts, pleasures and delights of all sorts, as whores, bawds wives, husbands, children, masters, servants, lives, blood, bodies, souls, silver, gold, pearls, precious stones and what not

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Mathew Arnold (1822—1888)

“Dover Beach”

Explanation of their city Dover where recently about 50 Chinese were dead during struggling transport to England from Spain

Also tell the students the spelling mistakes of printing.

Related to Wordsworth’s poems

Samuel Johnson: Letter to Lord Chesterfield

联系Wordsworth和Letter to Lord Chesterfield进行赏析。重点研究和体会Sea of Faith对人、对神、对情的一往情深。

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观沧海

东临碣石,以观沧海。水何澹澹,山岛竦峙。

树木丛生,百草丰茂。秋风萧瑟,洪波涌起。

日月之行,若出其中;星汉灿烂,若出其里。

幸甚至哉!歌以咏志。

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Robber Browning(1812—1889)

“Meeting At Night”

Browning began his literary career as an ardent follower or Shelly. Late he managed to avoid the subjective of Shelley and created his own objective way of writing.

His earliest works included Pauline(1833) his first poem: Paracelsus

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Oscar Wilde(1854 ---1900)

“Preface to the picture of Dorian Gray”

Oscar Wilde ,a dramatist, poet, novelist and essayist was born in Dublin, Ireland.

IN 1879, he settled in London and soon won a reputation both as a writer and as a spokesman

Or the school of “Art for Art’s Sake”. He soon became the leader of the Aesthetic Movement.

Vera----- a play

The Picture of Dorian Gray

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James Joyce 1882-1941

The psychoanalytic method of Sigmuid Freud (1856-1939) and intuitive and semi-mystical philosophy of Henri Bergson (1859-1941) also contributed to both the form and content of stream of consciousness fiction.

Stream of consciousness , which presents the (hoight) of character in the random, seemingly unorganized fashion in which the thinking process occurs, has the following characteristics.

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Although James Joyce did not invent to technique of Stream of consciousness fiction, no other writer in England used it so systematically or such profound effect. He worked tirelessly to perfect this technique through careful use of words, to convey precisely and subtly to the reader what was the inner, mental state of his characters.

Ulysesses (1922-) is generally acknowledge to be his master piece and a typical example of stream of consciousness technique. This novel deals with the events of one day in Dublin in June, 1904

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Modernist Novelists:

James Joyce (1882—1941)

Virginia Woolf (1882—1941)

D.H. Lawrence (1885—1930)

Virginia Woolf 出生于伦敦,父亲是著名学者、传记作家,未受正规学校教育。共创作9部小说及若干短篇小说。主要有The Voyage Dut,1915. Night and Day, 1919. Jacob’s Room Mrs. Dalloway, 1925. To the Lighthouse, 1927. Orlando, 1928.

The Waves, 1941. The Years, 1937. Between the Acts, 1941.

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D.H.Lawrance (1885~1930)

出生于诺丁汉郡伊斯伍德(Easterwood),父亲是煤矿工人,母亲是小学教师。第一部小说(The White Peacock)1911年发表。自传性质的小说Sons and Lovers.1913.特别描写了使他最为成功的两部小说——Rainbow1915和Women in Love1921。这两作品都对资本主义工业文明提出了强烈的批评。

最有争议及最成名的作品Lady Chatterley’s Lover1928。

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《短歌行》

对酒当歌,人生几何?譬如朝露,去日苦多。慨当以慷,忧思难忘。何以解忧?惟有杜康。青青子衿,悠悠我心。但为君故,沉吟至今。呦呦鹿鸣,食野之蘋。我有嘉宾,鼓瑟吹笙。明明如月,何时可掇?忧从中来,不可断绝。越陌度阡,枉用相存。契阔谈讌,心念旧恩。月明星稀,乌鹊南飞。绕树三匝,何枝可依?山不厌高,海不厌深。周公吐哺,天下归心。

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建安十三年,曹操率大军南下,列阵长江,欲一举荡平孙刘势力。大战前夕,酒宴众文武,饮至半夜,忽闻鸦声望南飞鸣而去。曹操感此景而持槊歌此《短歌行》。建安十三年,曹操率大军南下,列阵长江,欲一举荡平孙刘势力。大战前夕,酒宴众文武,饮至半夜,忽闻鸦声望南飞鸣而去。曹操感此景而持槊歌此《短歌行》。

此诗气格高远,感情丰富,是诗人内心世界的真实写照。诗中,诗人以感人的真诚和慷慨悲凉的情感咏叹了生命的忧患、生命的悲剧。以貌似颓放的意态来表达及时进取的精神,以放纵歌酒的行为来表现对人生哲理的严肃思考,以觥筹交错之景来抒发心忧天下和渴慕人才之情。全诗以感慨开始,继之以慷慨、沉吟,再继之以忧愁、开朗。一忧一喜,忽徐忽急,以如歌的行板倾诉了作者慷慨激昂的情怀。