英国文学史与选读 讲座课件. 汤富华 2004 年 3 月. 通过作品找意境，通过中西文学对比，让文学课升华至文化课，让我们的学生成为自己的主人。. Early and Medieval English Literature. Geoffrey Chaucer, the founder of English poetry, was born, about 1340, in London. He was the son of a wine merchant who had connections with the court. .
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Geoffrey Chaucer, the founder of English poetry, was born, about 1340, in London. He was the son of a wine merchant who had connections with the court.
Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight, is in privateness and retiring, for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment and disposition of business. For different expert man can execute, and perhaps judge of particulars, one by one; But the general courses and the plots and marshalling of affaires, come best from those that are learned. To spend too much time on study is sloth, to use them too much for ornament, is affectation, to make judgment only by their rules, is the humor of a scholar. They perfect nature and are perfected by experience, for nature abilities are like nature plants, that need to be pruning by study, and studies themselves do give forth directions too much at large.
He was born in a middle-class family.his father was a prominent lawyer,and later a judge.A scholar by nature ,he became a lawyer.Quite early he was elected to Parliament and he acted as the spokesman of London merchants who were on e of the principal stays of the Tudor monarchy.
lexicographer, critic and poet, was born in Lichfield, Stafforshire, the son of a poor bookseller. After studying at Oxford for little more than a year, he was forced to leave the university by poverty. Then followed his long struggle as a hack writer.
In 1741, some booksellers asked Johnson to compile a dictionary or the English language. It took him eight years to finish this enormous work, and in 1755 his “Dictionary” was published.
Johnson thought that “all was false and hollow” despised the honeyed words, and wrote a letter to Lord Chestfield, saying “ when I had once addressed your lordship in public, I had exhausted all the art or pleasing which a retired and uncourtly scholar can possess.”
Letter to Lord Chestfield
1495 - 1497年 米兰圣玛利亚·格拉契修道院藏
《蒙娜丽莎》意大利 达 · 芬奇画 木板油画
77 × 53厘米1503 - 1505年巴黎卢浮尔宫博物馆藏
《西斯廷教堂天顶画》局部 壁画 36·54×13·14米
米开朗期罗 （意大利） 梵帝冈西斯廷教堂藏 （1475 - 1564年）
（1514 - 1516年）
“All the world 's a stage,
And all the men and women
plays had been
Burned in 1613
Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer’s lease hath all too short a date:
Sometime too hot the eye of the heaven shines
And often is his gold complexion dimmed;
And every fair from fair sometime declines,
By chance or nature’s changing course untrimmed;
But thy eternal summer shall not fade,
Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st;
Nor shall death brag thou wander’st in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st:
So long as a man can breathe, or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives live to thee.
Its meaning of equity
John Milton, the greatest English poet after Shakespeare, was the one great literary figure who want tried seriously to combine Renaissance and Reformation. His rich stories of classical learning with revival of deep religious feeling.
Milton’s work can be divided into three creative period. The first period was up to 1641, during which time he was to be seen chiefly as a son of the humanity and Elizabethans, although his Puritanism was not absent.
Milton is one of the very few truly great English writers who is also a prominent figure in politics and who is both a great poet and important prose writer.
Robert Burns (1759—?)
“A Red, Red Rose”
“Auld Lang Syne”
Burns的A Red, Red Rose是一首难得的好情诗。Auld Lang Syne.更是成了全世界家喻户晓的好歌，很像中国的王洛宾的那首《在那遥远的地方》。其实，抒发像Auld Lang Syne这种韵味，无论哪个民族都有，如《月光下的凤尾竹》由施光南作曲，云南傣族人用葫芦丝演奏的曲调也有异曲同工的效果。
We are seven
Lines Written in Early Spring
To the cuckoo
I Wondered lonely as a cloud
The Solitary Reaper
Intimations or Immortality
I wandered lonely as a cloud
That floats on high o’er vales and hills,
When all at once I saw a crowd,
A host, of golden daffodils;
Beside the lake, beneath the tress,
Fluttering and dance in the breeze.
Continuous as the stars that shine
And twinkle on the milky way,
They stretched in the never-ending line
Along the margin of a bay;
Ten thousand say I at a glance,
Tossing their heads in sprightly dance.
The waves beside them danced; but they
Outdid the sparkling waves in glee;
A poet could not but be gay,
In such a jocund company;
I gazed – and gazed – but little thought
What wealth the show to me had brought:
For oft, when on my couch I lie
In vacant or in pensive mood,
They flash upon that inward eye
Which is the bliss of solitude;
And then my heart with pleasure fills,
And dance with the daffodils.
徐志摩是20世纪初中国杰出的诗人、散文家,是一个值得敬佩和怀念的名字。他不仅在五四新文学史上是“新月社”的巨挚、“新月诗派”的祭酒, 在新文学创作上所发射的光芒,如日中天,久而不晦; 而且他风流、浪漫的人生,同样是那样传奇瑰丽, 又富有诗情画意,可与中国的李商隐、温庭绚、杜牧,英国的拜伦、雪莱、济慈相媲美。悲喜交织的爱情,放荡不羁的生活,外圆内方的交际,惊世骇俗的创作,绝顶天才的智慧,卑己自牧的性格,浪迹天涯的漫游,构成了徐志摩的卓尔不群,更为中国文坛平添了不少佳话。
徐志摩原名章垿, 号志摩,浙江海宁人。1920 年获美国哥伦比亚大学社会学硕士,后转英国剑桥大学取得特别生资格,在王家学院随意选课听讲。从此他抛弃了以往攻读的社会学、经济学,改学文学,他的思想和生活发生了很大变化。徐志摩在剑桥期间致力于西洋文学的钻研,历时两年。这个时期,他的感情如山洪暴发,生命受到一种伟大力量的震撼。缤纷的花雨,不成熟的意念,新诗的心境,我们可以从他的那篇《想飞》看出这时候他思想生活的轨迹。这时的徐志摩已由一个单纯的爱国青年, 转变成为一个浪漫诗人,并创立了 “生活是艺术”的所谓“艺术的人生观”。
刘心皇曾这样评价说,徐志摩之所以可爱,除了徐志摩绝没有一般文人的小气、多疑、嫉妒、搬弄是非,或是今日连甲攻乙 , 明日连丙攻甲……的毛病之外 , 尤其在于(1) 性格好:热情诚挚,淳朴天真,有赤子之心,是一团同情,是一团爱。(2)对朋友好:他有同情心,是朋友之间的连锁。(3)对一般人好:他对任何人任何事绝没有怨恨,永不恨人,也永想不到人会恨他。(4)极风趣:很自然地讨人欢喜 , 他一生决不让人苦闷。这是对徐志摩其人的一个极好的概括,入微入妙,逼真逼肖。
O blithe new-comer! I have heard, I hear thee and rejoice. O Cuckoo! shall I call thee Bird,Or but a wandering Voice?While I am lying on the grassThy twofold shout I hear;From hill to hill it seems to passAt once far off, and near.
The same whom in my schoolboy daysI listened to; that CryWhich made me look a thousand waysIn bush, and tree, and sky.To seek thee did I often roveThrough woods and on the green;And thou wert still a hope, a love;Still longed for, never seen.
And I can listen to thee yet;Can lie upon the plainAnd listen, till I do begetThat golden time again.O blessed Bird! the earth we paceAgain appears to beAn unsubstantial, faery place;That is fit home for thee!
Though babbling only to the Vale,Of sunshine and of flowers,Thou bringest unto me a taleOf visionary hours.Thrice welcome, darling of the Spring!Even ye thou art to meNo bird, but an invisible thing,A voice a mystery;
She walks in beauty, like the night
Of cloudless climes and starry skies;
And all that 's best of dark and bright
Meet in her aspect and her eyes:
Thus mellow'd to that tender light
Which heaven to gaudy day denies.
One shade the more, one ray the less,
Had half impair'd the nameless grace
Which waves in every raven tress,
Or softly lightens o'er her face;
Where thoughts serenely sweet express
How pure, how dear their dwelling-place.
And on that cheek, and o'er that brow,
So soft, so calm, yet eloquent,
The smiles that win, the tints that glow,
But tell of days in goodness spent,
A mind at peace with all below,
A heart whose love is innocent!
“Ode To The West Wind”
Make me thy lyre, even as the forest is: What if my leaves are falling like its own?The tumult of thy mighty harmoniesWill take from both a deep autumnal tone,Sweet though in sadness. Be thou, Spirit fierce,My spirit! Be thou me, impetuous one!Drive my dead thoughts over the universe,Like wither’d leaves, to quicken a new birth;And, by the incantation of this verse,Scatter, as from an unextinguish’d hearthAshes and sparks, my words among mankind!Be through my lips to unawaken’d earthThe trumpet of a prophecy! O Wind,If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?
Ode to the West Wind
Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness,Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun;Conspiring with him how to load and blessWith fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves run;To bend with apples the mossed cottage-trees,And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core;To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shellsWith a sweet kernel; to set budding more,And still more, later flowers for the bees,Until they think warm days will never cease,For Summer has o'er-brimmed their clammy cells.
Who hath not seen thee oft amid thy store?Sometimes whoever seeks abroad may findThee sitting careless on a granary floor,Thy hair soft-lifted by the winnowing wind;Or on a half-reaped furrow sound asleep,Drows'd with the fume of poppies, while thy hookSpares the next swath and all its twinéd flowers:And sometimes like a gleaner thou dost keepSteady thy laden head across a brook;Or by a cider-press, with patient look,Thou watchest the last oozings hours by hours.
Where are the songs of Spring? Ay, where are they?Think not of them, thou hast thy music too,—While barréd clouds bloom the soft-dying day,And touch the stubble-plains with rosy hue;Then in a wailful choir the small gnats mournAmong the river sallows, borne aloftOr sinking as the light wind lives or dies;And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn; Hedge-crickets sing; and now with treble softThe red-breast whistles from a garden-croft;And gathering swallows twitter in the skies.
1842 “American Notes”
1843-45 “Martin Chuzzlewit”
1843 “A Christmas Carol” (a Christmas book)
1844 “The Chimes” (a Christmas book)
1845 “The Cricket on the Hearth” (a Christmas book)
1846-48 “Dombey AND Son”
1849-50 “David Copperfield”
1852-53 “Bleak House”
1854 “Hard Time”
1855-57 “Little Dorrit”
1859 “A Tale of Two Cites”
1860-61 “Great Expectations”
1864-65 “Our Mutual Friend”
1870 “Edwin Drood”
“Pride and Prejudice”
“Sense and Sensibility”
“Pride and Prejudice”
It is the story of a young girl who rejects an offer of marriage because the young nobleman who makes it has been rude to her family. It is a very plot but around it the authoress has woven vivid pictures or the everyday life of simple country society.
Purpose: ask the students to read novels of the time that they clearly get aware of it. Like the time economy, history and persons. Also a lot of incidents which are related to them. Only on the base if through understanding the history with regards to economic, military and even climatic change or development can we fully understand the hero or the heroing of the literatural world.
Besides this we should compare them with present time if the time of our own culture. Like Victorian age and late Qing Dynasty, students should know Chao Xueqin, Lin Zhenxu. Also some questions should be raised always in the mind. Why Victorian Age was so powerful in terms of her economic and military and industrial development.
Assignment: A essay on Tess of the D’Urbervilles, Jane Eyre, Pride and Prejudice.
Through all the writing practice students can get more benefits in narration .
Talks and discussion on Tess would set people thinking.
Suppose Tess’s happy ending. What it would be like?
Ask students to prepare imagined ending.
hoping Tess will happily live with Angel and with the baby growing healthily.
Other novelists of the Victorian Age:
Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell(1818—1865). She has a strong sympathy for the workers.
Masterpiece: Cranford , Marry Barton , Biography of Charlotte Bronte
Jane Austen completed six novels, Northanger Abbey, Persuasion, Sense and Sensibility, Pride and Prejudice, Mansfield Park, and Emma.
Her novels were published anonymously owing to the prejudice prevailing at the time concerning the writing of novels by a lady.
Living a quiet life in the countryside, she kept her eyes steadily upon the people and incidents about herm, and wrote the small part of the world she lived in.
“Pride and Prejudice” has been the most widely read among them. Austen began to write it when she was 21.But the manuscript “went begging” for 16 years at the doors of publishers before it was published in 1813.It is the story of a young girl who rejected an offer of marriage because the young nobleman who makes it has been rude to her family. It is a very thin plot, but around it the authoress has woven vivid pictures if the everyday life of simple country society.
Through description id the daily talks and doings of the young men and the women. Austen paints their characters. She is at her best in writing about young girls, because she understood them astonishingly well.
Queen Victorian was the ruler of English from 1837 to 1901, so it is customary to call the writing produced during this long stretch or years Victorian literature.
Three phases: the Early Victorian Period (1832—1848), a time of troubles: the Mid—Victorian Period(1848—1870), a time of economic prospering and religious controversy; and the Last Period(1870—1901), a time characterized by decay of Victorian values.
Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell
Alfred Lord Tennyson
透析Jane与Helen的对话中善与恶的启蒙思想，两人对Helen的不同看法，展示了人群的价值观“善为先”如Jane眼中Temple 是可恶的，而Helen如此:Miss Temple is full of goodness. She guilty tells me of my mistakes , and praises me if I do well.
“Why did I never hear of this? I asked, amaze. I hated you so much that I wrote back to him, telling him you had died o typhus fever at Lowood. That was my revenge on you, for causing me so much trouble!” She cried angrily.
“Dear aunt,” I said, “don’t think about that any more…
解释：从 Jan对 Rochester的求婚的对白试图说明男女之间情爱的追求和人生命赋义。
Novelist and poet, is one o the representatives of English critical realism at the turn of the 19th century. He was born in Dorset, a southern country of England, which he called Wessex in his books.
Hardy wrote prodigiously. His principal works are the Wessex Novel. i.e. the novels describing the characters and environment of his native countryside. They include “Under the Greenwood Tree”. Far from Madding Crowd. The Mayor of Casterbridge. Jude the obscure.
“Tess of the D’Urbervilles”
Questions: the modern meaning o female problem; women’s liberation .
Is there still a Tess around you?
There figure Alec, Angel Clare, talker of Tess , are good people.
Topic :Comparison between Charles Dickens and William Makepeace Thackeray
The coincidence of the same birth period of the two great novelists
The main idea or rough impression of the two.
Why you like either of them?
Thackeray, borrowing Bunyan’s idea “Vanity city ” regard the circle o petty bourgeois and aristocratic society as Vanity Faire, a faire where should sold all sorts of vanity.
Therefore, at this faire are all such merchandise sold, as horses, lands , trades, places, honors, preferments, titles countries, Kingdoms, lusts, pleasures and delights of all sorts, as whores, bawds wives, husbands, children, masters, servants, lives, blood, bodies, souls, silver, gold, pearls, precious stones and what not
Explanation of their city Dover where recently about 50 Chinese were dead during struggling transport to England from Spain
Also tell the students the spelling mistakes of printing.
Related to Wordsworth’s poems
Samuel Johnson: Letter to Lord Chesterfield
联系Wordsworth和Letter to Lord Chesterfield进行赏析。重点研究和体会Sea of Faith对人、对神、对情的一往情深。
“Meeting At Night”
Browning began his literary career as an ardent follower or Shelly. Late he managed to avoid the subjective of Shelley and created his own objective way of writing.
His earliest works included Pauline(1833) his first poem: Paracelsus
“Preface to the picture of Dorian Gray”
Oscar Wilde ,a dramatist, poet, novelist and essayist was born in Dublin, Ireland.
IN 1879, he settled in London and soon won a reputation both as a writer and as a spokesman
Or the school of “Art for Art’s Sake”. He soon became the leader of the Aesthetic Movement.
Vera----- a play
The Picture of Dorian Gray
The psychoanalytic method of Sigmuid Freud (1856-1939) and intuitive and semi-mystical philosophy of Henri Bergson (1859-1941) also contributed to both the form and content of stream of consciousness fiction.
Stream of consciousness , which presents the (hoight) of character in the random, seemingly unorganized fashion in which the thinking process occurs, has the following characteristics.
Although James Joyce did not invent to technique of Stream of consciousness fiction, no other writer in England used it so systematically or such profound effect. He worked tirelessly to perfect this technique through careful use of words, to convey precisely and subtly to the reader what was the inner, mental state of his characters.
Ulysesses (1922-) is generally acknowledge to be his master piece and a typical example of stream of consciousness technique. This novel deals with the events of one day in Dublin in June, 1904
James Joyce (1882—1941)
Virginia Woolf (1882—1941)
D.H. Lawrence (1885—1930)
Virginia Woolf 出生于伦敦，父亲是著名学者、传记作家,未受正规学校教育。共创作9部小说及若干短篇小说。主要有The Voyage Dut,1915. Night and Day, 1919. Jacob’s Room Mrs. Dalloway, 1925. To the Lighthouse, 1927. Orlando, 1928.
The Waves, 1941. The Years, 1937. Between the Acts, 1941.
出生于诺丁汉郡伊斯伍德（Easterwood），父亲是煤矿工人，母亲是小学教师。第一部小说（The White Peacock）1911年发表。自传性质的小说Sons and Lovers.1913.特别描写了使他最为成功的两部小说——Rainbow1915和Women in Love1921。这两作品都对资本主义工业文明提出了强烈的批评。
最有争议及最成名的作品Lady Chatterley’s Lover1928。