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Plagiarism Avoid it like the Plague!. Dr. Lawrence J. Marks Kent State University Department of Marketing Your Cheating Heart…. According to KSU’s “Administrative policy regarding student cheating and plagiarism” (Policy 3-01.8):

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plagiarism avoid it like the plague

PlagiarismAvoid it like the Plague!

Dr. Lawrence J. Marks

Kent State University

Department of Marketing

your cheating heart
Your Cheating Heart…

According to KSU’s “Administrative policy regarding student cheating and plagiarism” (Policy 3-01.8):

"Cheat" means intentionally to misrepresent the source, nature, or other conditions of academic work so as to accrue undeserved credit, or to cooperate with someone else in such misrepresentation. Such misrepresentations may, but need not necessarily, involve the work of others.

cheating examples include but are not limited to
Cheating Examples Include (but are not limited to):

(a) Obtaining or retaining partial or whole copies of examination, tests or quizzes before these are distributed for student use;

(b) Using notes, textbooks or other information in examinations, tests and quizzes, except as expressly permitted;

(c) Obtaining confidential information about examinations, tests or quizzes other than that released by the instructor;

(d) Securing, giving or exchanging information during examinations;

(e) Presenting data or other material gathered by another person or group as one's own;

(f) Falsifying experimental data or information;

cheating examples include
Cheating Examples Include:

(g) Having another person take one's place for any academic performance without the specific knowledge and permission of the instructor;

(h) Cooperating with another to do one or more of the above; and

(i) Using a substantial portion of a piece of work previously submitted for another course or program to meet the requirements of the present course or program without notifying the instructor to whom the work is presented.

(j) Presenting falsified information in order to postpone or avoid examinations, tests, quizzes, or other academic work.

and plagiarize
…and "Plagiarize"

"Plagiarize" means to take and present as one's own a material portion of the ideas or words of another or to present as one's own an idea or work derived from an existing source without full and proper credit to the source of the ideas, words, or works.

all of the following are considered plagiarism
All of the following are considered plagiarism:
  • turning in someone else's work as your own
  • copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit
  • failing to put a quotation in quotation marks
  • giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation
  • changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit
  • copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not (see our section on "fair use" rules)


cheating and plagiarism are common
Cheating and Plagiarism are Common

“Not only is cheating significantly up…, Mr. McCabe has found, but many students do not consider it a big deal, saying it was just a modern fact of life. His [2003] study…of 16,000 undergraduates at 23 colleges and universities found that 38 percent had taken material from the Internet and passed it off as their own. Forty-four percent of all the students surveyed said it was no big deal. In a 2000 survey only 10 percent of students admitted to Internet cheating.”

Source: The New York Times, October 4, 2003, Section B; Column 5, page 7

academic integrity in college and graduate school

A survey of over 63,700 US undergraduate and 9,250 graduate students…revealed the following:

  • 36% of undergraduates and 24% of graduate students admit to “paraphrasing/copying few sentences from an Internet source without footnoting it.”
  • 38% of undergraduates and 25% of graduate students admit to “paraphrasing/copying few sentences from a written source without footnoting it.”
  • 14% of undergraduate students and 7% of graduate students admit to “fabricating/falsifying a bibliography”
  • 7% of undergraduate students and 4% of graduate students self report copying materials “almost word for word from a written source without citation.”
  • 7% undergraduate students and 3% of graduate students self report “turning in work done by another.”
  • 3% undergraduate students and 2% of graduate students self report “obtaining paper from term paper mill.”


Source: and

our view plagiarizers should learn now written by dks editorsthursday 06 september 2012
Our View: Plagiarizers should learn now, Written by DKS EditorsThursday, 06 September 2012
  • As professors introduced us to their classes last week, many of us casually flipped through the syllabi while they brushed over the university’s academic honesty policy that they’re required to include. In a digital age that makes plagiarism so easy, they expect us to understand the consequences.
  • Unfortunately, a lot of students don’t. Plagiarism is more than copying word-for-word; the crime includes using similar sentence structure or misusing citations — rules that many students have forgotten or may have never learned.
  • Through its new plagiarism school, the university is giving those students a second chance, and we applaud the initiative. If a student truly doesn’t understand what he or she did wrong, that student should have the opportunity to learn. On the second offense, full punishment is fair game.
  • We don’t wish to minimize the seriousness of plagiarism; it’s a crime that has ruined careers of journalists who have tainted the integrity of the field. But those who don’t understand their misconduct should learn the rules in an academic setting — before the consequences cost them their career.
    • The above editorial is the consensus opinion of the Daily Kent Stater editorial board.

Read more at:

if it is so common why avoid it
If it is so common, why avoid it?

A. It is WRONG and may be ILLEGAL as well, and

B. The penalties for cheating and plagiarism can be severe. At KSU, an instructor can:

(i) Refuse to accept the work for credit; or

(ii) Assign a grade of "F" or zero for the project, test, paper, examination or other work in which the cheating or plagiarism took place; or

(iii) Assign a grade of "F" for the course in which the cheating or plagiarism took place; and/or;

(iv) Recommend further action be taken [including dismissal, suspension, and probation]


…at work, you could lose your job!

types of plagiarism
Types of plagiarism

The 10 most common types of plagiarism, in order of severity of intent.

#1. CLONE -- Submitting someone else’s work, word-for-word, as your own.

#2. CTRL-C -- Contains significant portions of text from a single source without alterations.

#3. FIND – REPLACE -- Changing key words and phrases but retaining the essential content of the source.

#4. REMIX -- Paraphrases from multiple sources, made to fit together.

#5. RECYCLE -- Borrows generously from the writer’s previous work without citation.

types of plagiarism12
Types of plagiarism

The 10 most common types of plagiarism, in order of severity of intent.

#6. HYBRID -- Combines perfectly cited sources with copied passages without citation.

#7. MASHUP -- Mixes copied material from multiple sources.

#8. 404 ERROR -- Includes citations to non-existent or inaccurate information about sources.

#9. AGGREGATOR -- Includes proper citation to sources but the paper contains almost no original work.

#10. RE-TWEET -- Includes proper citation, but relies too closely on the text’s original wording and/or structure and turnitin’s White Paper “The Plagiarism Spectrum”

avoiding plagiarism
Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Make sure you understand the expectations clear
    • What IS plagiarism?
    • Why is it “bad?”
    • What are the penalties for it?
  • Check your syllabus
avoiding plagiarism14
Avoiding Plagiarism

Techniques for Avoiding Plagiarism

  • In academic writing you must show that you have read and understood the recommended books and any other relevant reading BUT not by copying what they say. The ideas are owned by the writer. Copying in a way that makes the ideas appear to be your own is plagiarism.
  • There are two things you can do to avoid being accused of plagiarism:
  • Technique 1:  Paraphrasing (re-writing in your own words) Technique 2:  Follow the rules when copying directly from a text or any other source (e.g., the internet).  

Used with permission from

avoiding plagiarism15
Avoiding Plagiarism

Technique 1:  Paraphrasing (re-writing in your own words)

  • Books and articles should be used as a source of information from which you write, in your own words, what you believe are the important points. You must acknowledge your sources of information (see below). In the parts of your writing that rely on source texts for information, paraphrasing should be used the most.
  • As well as stating the important points you should also explain the points, compare and contrast the views of different authors you have read, and add your own comments on the topic under discussion.
    • By doing these things you go beyond merely repeating the information which you have found. This is what makes a good assignment.
    • Repeating information shows only that the information has been read and possibly memorized.
    • The addition of explanations, comparisons, contrasts and comments is better because it shows that the information has been read, analyzed and understood. A teacher who is marking an assignment is sure to give higher marks for such a display of knowledge and understanding.

Used with permission from

avoiding plagiarism16
Avoiding Plagiarism

Technique 2:  Follow the rules when copying directly from a text

  • There are times when you can quote directly from your source material. However, you must follow certain rules.
  • Direct copying of part of a passage (e.g. a whole paragraph) must occur rarely in your writing and once copied should not represent a large proportion of your own text. It should be clearly distinguished from the rest of your text in a way which makes it clear that it is a quotation.
  • Very short parts of a source text (e.g. part of a sentence) can be copied when needed. However, the words that you have copied must be immediately obvious to your reader. You must also take care not to change any of the words.
  • The exact source of your quotation must be acknowledged. This must be done in a way which shows clearly how much is copied (see following).
  • Examples of when you might want to copy directly are:
    • when the exact words are relevant to your argument/discussion
    • when something is expressed in a way which is unique
    • when re-writing would cause a loss of impact

Used with permission from

avoiding plagiarism17
Avoiding Plagiarism

Showing What is Copied:

“To avoid accusations of plagiarism you must show exactly which parts of your writing have been copied from other texts. You must, therefore, mark the beginning and ending of the quotation.” (Gardner 1994, p. 108)


For longer passages, you can INDENT the sentences or

paragraph to offset them from the rest of your original work. (Gardner 1994, p. 108)

Used with permission from

avoiding plagiarism18
Avoiding Plagiarism

Acknowledging Your Source

“There are different methods for acknowledging sources. Ask your teacher which method is preferred. If this is not possible, use the method which you see most often in the materials that you are reading for your study. Once you have chosen a method it is important to remain consistent.

  • Using footnotes or endnotes
    • Place a small number (usually slightly higher than the word it follows) in the text and list your sources by number either at the foot of the page or the end of the text. The numbers must run consecutively through the text.
  • Reference in the text
    • In the text you acknowledge a source by giving the author's family name and the date of publication. Readers can then check this in a references list at the end of your writing which contains the full publication information.

Used with permission from

avoiding plagiarism19
Avoiding Plagiarism

Acknowledging Your Source

Reference using the “in-the-text” example:

Provide the author and the date (and or page) in your writing:

Gardner (1994) says that what turns good teaching material into good learning material is what teachers do with it.

Then, an item in the reference list at the end of your writing:


Gardner, D. 1994 'Creating simple interactive video for self-access' in D. Gardner. and L. Miller (Eds.) Directions in Self-Access Language Learning. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press

Used with permission from

what about common knowledge
What about “common knowledge?”

Common knowledge includes facts that can be found in numerous places and are likely to be known by a lot of people.

  • Example 1: The earth is round.
  • Example 2: John F. Kennedy was elected President of the United States in 1960.
  • This is generally known information. 
  • You do not need to document these facts.
what about common knowledge21
What about “common knowledge?”

However, you must document facts that are not generally known and ideas that interpret facts.

  • Example 1: There are 57,491,000 square miles of land on the Earth, which is 36,794,240,000 acres.
    • This factual knowledge is most certainly not commonly known. You got this information from some specific source and you must cite that source (e.g.,
  • Example 2: According the American Family Leave Coalition’s new book, Family Issues and Congress, President Bush’s relationship with Congress has hindered family leave legislation (6).
    • The idea that “Bush’s relationship with Congress has hindered family leave legislation” is not a fact but an interpretation based on someone else’s assessment; consequently, you need to cite your source.
citation style examples
Citation Style Examples
  • APA Citation Style Examples:

  • Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide

apa citation style
APA Citation Style

Works by multiple authors

When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text. In parenthetical material join the names with an ampersand (&): ….as has been shown (Leiter & Maslach, 1998)

In the narrative text, join the names with the word "and:“ …. as Leiter and Maslach (1998) demonstrated

When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs: ….Kahneman, Knetsch, and Thaler (1991) found

In all subsequent citations per paragraph, include only the surname of the first author followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the year of publication: …Kahneman et al. (1991) found

Read more at:

apa citation style24
APA Citation Style

Works by associations, corporations, government agencies, etc.

  • The names of groups that serve as authors (corporate authors) are usually written out each time they appear in a text reference: ,,,(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2007)
  • When appropriate, the names of some corporate authors are spelled out in the first reference and abbreviated in all subsequent citations. The general rule for abbreviating in this manner is to supply enough information in the text citation for a reader to locate its source in the Reference List without difficulty: …(NIMH, 2007)

Read more at:

apa citation style25
APA Citation Style

Works with no author

  • When a work has no author, use the first two or three words of the work's title (omitting any initial articles) as your text reference, capitalizing each word. Place the title in quotation marks if it refers to an article, chapter of a book, or Web page. Italicize the title if it refers to a book, periodical, brochure, or report: ….on climate change ("Climate and Weather," 1997)

or ……Guide to Agricultural Meteorological Practices (1981)

  • Anonymous authors should be listed as such followed by a comma and the date: …on climate change (Anonymous, 2008)

Read more at:

apa citation style26
APA Citation Style

Specific parts of a source

  • To cite a specific part of a source (always necessary for quotations), include the page, chapter, etc. (with appropriate abbreviations) in the in-text citation: …(Stigter & Das, 1981, p. 96)


De Waal (1996) overstated the case when he asserted that "we seem to be reaching ... from the hands of philosophers" (p. 218).

  • If page numbers are not included in electronic sources (such as Web-based journals), provide the paragraph number preceded by the abbreviation "para." or the heading and following paragraph: …(Mönnich & Spiering, 2008, para. 9)

Read more at:

apa citation style27
APA Citation Style

Reference List: References cited in the text of a research paper must appear in a Reference List or bibliography. This list provides the information necessary to identify and retrieve each source.

Order: Entries should be arranged in alphabetical order by authors' last names. Sources without authors are arranged alphabetically by title within the same list.

Authors: Write out the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work. Use an ampersand (&) instead of the word "and" when listing multiple authors of a single work. e.g. Smith, J. D., & Jones, M.

Titles: Capitalize only the first word of a title or subtitle, and any proper names that are part of a title.

Pagination: Use the abbreviation p. or pp. to designate page numbers of articles from periodicals that do not use volume numbers, especially newspapers. These abbreviations are also used to designate pages in encyclopedia articles and chapters from edited books.

Indentation*: The first line of the entry is flush with the left margin, and all subsequent lines are indented (5 to 7 spaces) to form a "hanging indent".

Underlining vs. Italics*: It is appropriate to use italics instead of underlining for titles of books and journals.

Read more at:

apa citation style28
APA Citation Style
  • Reference Examples:

Read more at:

citation style guides available online
Citation/style guides available online

The Chicago Manual of Style Online. 16th ed. | Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide

Citation Management Help: Maintained by the Documentation Committee. Includes citation examples in MLA style and APA style as well a link to The Chicago Manual of Style and the Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide.

Duke University Libraries' Documentation page: shows APA, Chicago, MLA, Turabian, and CSE examples side by side

Quick Style Guide for Students Writing Sociology Papers: from the American Sociological Association

Citing References to Documents Found in LexisNexisSample MLA, APA, and Chicago citations are shown for document types found in LexisNexis databases.

Citing Records in the National Archives of the United States.

Citation styles in the life and physical sciences:

American Chemical Society (ACS) style: from the Williams College Library

Council of Biology Editors (CBE)/Council of Science Editors (CSE) style: from the University of North Carolina Libraries

Source: Olin & Uris Libraries, Cornell University --


KSU Library Citation Tools Page

KSU Library APA Style Resources

APACheat Sheet

  • This is a basic APA handout that gives examples of books, articles and web resources. It has been updated to reflect the changes of the 6th edition.


  • This LibGuide provides information on how to create citations in APA format. Explanations are provided along with examples.

APA Style

  • From the American Psychological Association. This site is a guide to the revised and updated sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. This link goes directly to frequently asked questions about APA citations and style.

APA Style-Including 2007 Electronic References

  • From Northern Michigan University, this site provides examples of APA citations, including citations of electronic materials using the newly revised APA style guidelines.

APA Tutorial

  • Tutorial introducing APA style from the University of Southern Mississippi Libraries. Includes information on formatting your paper, doing parenthetical or in-text references and creating a reference list.
Do’s and Don’ts for StudentsSource:
  • Don'tsDon't cheat.

Don't lie.

Don't steal.

Don't misrepresent others work as yours.

Don't go to online and off line sources where term papers can be commissioned or bought or borrowed for <wink>research purposes only</wink>.

Don't make up fake sources.

Don't make up fake quotes.

Don't make up fake interviews.

Do’s and Don’ts for StudentsSource:
  • Don'tsDon't think that by copying something over and changing every couple of words that you've put it in your own words.

Don't think that because something is on the Net it doesn't need to be cited.

Don't think that because a lot of textbooks and other printed matter you read don't site sources that you don't have to cite them either.

Don't think that because politicians have speech writers and actors have script writers who often go unacknowledged that you can get a writer to "secretary" your paper for you; rules that apply in other settings are different here, where the purpose is for you to do the writing.

Do’s and Don’ts for StudentsSource:
  • Don'tsDon't go to the library, find a book that hasn't been checked out often, then find a source in its bibliography, and then copy that source into a paper as yours.

Don't procrastinate on assignments and homework so that you end up under too much deadline pressure and become tempted to take shortcuts.

Don't be afraid to come see me if you feel overwhelmed, unsure, fear missing a deadline, or start falling behind.

Don't try to get around any of these Don'ts by working so hard to disguise them that you might as well have just done the Do's. 

Do’s and Don’ts for StudentsSource:
  • Do’s

Do share ideas with one another.

Do help one another write.

Do edit and rewrite sections of one another's papers from time to time; writers do that kind of thing all the time, and editors do it with them.

Do expect to make mistakes managing and citing sources.

Do expect to correct them.

Do take care in downloading sources and taking notes.

Do find a way to use sources wisely and fairly.

Do learn the myriad rhetorical purposes that including and citing sources can serve.

Do’s and Don’ts for StudentsSource:
  • Do’s

Do use the word processor to help you manage sources (for example, put sources you're quoting or paraphrasing in a different font and font color until the final draft so you don't accidentally forget they came from some other writer).

Do have fun with sources, think of using them as weaving, building, playing with blocks, or any other metaphor that you associate with "taking what's at hand and making something of it."

Do write before, while, and after you research, but especially before. Do discover an argument so you have a distinctive voice in your own essay, and aren't overwhelmed and intimidated by sources.

Do come see me whenever you have a question about the course, are feeling overwhelmed, or unhappy with an assignment or your work; we can talk and find a way to make things work.

detecting plagiarism
Detecting Plagiarism

If a professor suspects a student has plagiarized, it is easy enough to check on it. Profs can paste a suspect sentence into one of the search engines below. This will catch most papers downloaded off of the web.

    • And/or Google Scholar


detecting plagiarism37
Detecting Plagiarism

Inexpensive Software to detect plagiarism:

EVE Plagiarism Detection System

WriteCheck – Plagiarism check, grammar check, & Tutoring

Freeware Software to detect plagiarism:


KSU has a program called Safe Assign on Blackboard. Your professor may give you access to that.

cheating and plagiarism
Cheating and Plagiarism

MY experiences and actions:

  • Undergraduate exam cheating
    • Number exams, number scantron sheets, create two versions, intermix the versions, require students to show ID to obtain exam, check the name off of a class list of names
    • Have students sit in a random seat and remove ALL objects from the desktop
cheating and plagiarism39
Cheating and Plagiarism

MY experiences and actions:

  • Undergraduate and MBA students “sharing” their work (to the extent that one is virtually copied from the other)
    • Highlight the identical wording (after making sure that it is not, for example, copied from a common source like the textbook)
    • Bring the students in and listen to their explanation
    • Do something like assign the grade and then divide it by two (for example)
cheating and plagiarism40
Cheating and Plagiarism

MY experiences and actions:

  • Doctoral student plagiarized a paper from on line
  • Doctoral student making up data for an experiment
  • Doctoral students failing to use adequate and/or proper citations in their research papers
cheating plagiarism and you
Cheating, Plagiarism, and YOU
  • DON’T DO IT!!!!!!!!!!!!
  • For an excellent review of the topic, browse

  • A good “summary” site

  • Other:

  • Canada Academic integrity Committee, “Tips for Preventing Plagiarism,” 8/13/04,
  • Carbone, Nick, New Media Consultant Bedford/St. Martin's, “Talking About Plagiarism: A Syllabus Strategy for Talking About Plagiarism with Students
  • EVE Plagiarism Detection System;
  • Gross Davis, Barbara, “Tools for Teaching”,
  •; Document provided by and Research Resources. Turnitin allows free distribution and non-profit use of this document in educational settings.
  • Kent State University Policy Register,
  • The New York Times
  • U.S. News and World Report
  • WCopyfind;