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Phylum Apicomplexa. Characteristics of Apicomplexa. Shape of cell maintained by pellicle. Characteristics of Apicomplexa. Shape of cell maintained by pellicle. Locomotion characterized as gliding. Cilia absent, but some species produce flagellated or ameboid gamest.

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characteristics of apicomplexa
Characteristics of Apicomplexa
  • Shape of cell maintained by pellicle.
characteristics of apicomplexa1
Characteristics of Apicomplexa
  • Shape of cell maintained by pellicle.
  • Locomotion characterized as gliding. Cilia absent, but some species produce flagellated or ameboid gamest.
characteristics of apicomplexa2
Characteristics of Apicomplexa
  • Shape of cell maintained by pellicle.
  • Locomotion characterized as gliding. Cilia absent, but some species produce flagellated or ameboid gamest.
  • Asexual and sexual reproduction.
characteristics of apicomplexa3
Characteristics of Apicomplexa
  • Shape of cell maintained by pellicle.
  • Locomotion characterized as gliding. Cilia absent, but some species produce flagellated or ameboid gamest.
  • Asexual and sexual reproduction.
  • Unique system of organelles, the apical complex in anterior region of cell.
characteristics of apicomplexa4
Characteristics of Apicomplexa
  • Shape of cell maintained by pellicle.
  • Locomotion characterized as gliding. Cilia absent, but some species produce flagellated or ameboid gamest.
  • Asexual and sexual reproduction.
  • Unique system of organelles, the apical complex in anterior region of cell.
  • All intracellular parasites at some stage in the life cycle.
classification
Classification
  • Perkinsasidea- parasites of oysters.
  • Conoidasida- gregarines and coccidians.
  • Aconoidasida- malaria parasites and piroplasms, usually blood parasites of vertebrates, with an arthropod host.
protozoan reproduction
Protozoan Reproduction
  • Amoeba reproduce by binary fission essentially mitosis.
  • Other types of fission:
protozoan reproduction1
Protozoan Reproduction
  • Repeated fission: Process by which colonies are made; like binary fission except daughter cells don’t separate!
protozoan reproduction2
Protozoan Reproduction
  • Multiple fission: nucleus divides (multinucleated) before cytoplasm; the cytoplasm divides secondly.
    • Schizogony: asexual process done by an organism that is itself asexual.
    • Sporogony: formed by a sexual process.
slide13

Generalized Life Cycle of an Apicomplexan

1. Schizogony (Merogony)

Schizont or meront

sexual reproduction
Sexual Reproduction
  • Gamete: formed by sexual process (meiosis); sperm and egg.
  • Microgamete (sperm) and macrogamete (egg).
  • Gametes are made by a process called gametogenesis.
sexual reproduction1
Sexual Reproduction

Gametocyte gametogenesis gametes

slide16

Generalized Life Cycle of an Apicomplexan

2. Gamogony: sexual reproduction.

slide17

Generalized Life Cycle of an Apicomplexan

3. Sporogony: multiple fission of a zygote.

malaria
Malaria

Disease has been known since antiquity - one of first reports described fevers in 1550 BC.

malaria1
Malaria

Disease has been known since antiquity - one of first reports described fevers in 1550 BC.

Malaria was commonly found in swampy areas and was thought to be contracted by breathing in "bad air" (= mal aria) in the swamps.

malaria2
Malaria
  • Disease has been known since antiquity - one of first reports described fevers in 1550 BC.
  • Malaria was commonly found in swampy areas and was thought to be contracted by breathing in "bad air" (= mal aria) in the swamps.
    • Much effort was directed towards finding a causative agent in the water or air of these swamps.
    • We now know that the mosquitoes that vectors the disease lived in these swamps.
malaria plasmodium life cycle
Malaria (Plasmodium) Life Cycle
  • Has a two host life cycle.
  • Mosquitoes in the genus Anopheles are the vector hosts.
some stages of malaria in anopheles
Some Stages of Malaria in Anopheles

Feeding female Anopheles

Exflagellation showing microgametes

Sporozoites from salivary gland

Oocysts on outside of mosquito stomach

some stages of malaria in the human
Some Stages of Malaria in the human

Cryptozoite in liver cell – it will burst releasing merozoites

Trophozoite – uninucleate form in rbc

Schizont – multinucleate form in rbc

Gametocyte – uninucleate form in rbc

blood apicomplexans
Blood Apicomplexans
  • Plasmodium-cause malaria in people; occur in birds, lizards, mammals.
  • Have exoerythrocytic and erythrocytic schizogony.
blood apicomplexans1
Blood Apicomplexans
  • Leucocytozoon: only have exoerythrocytic schizogony.
  • Occur in birds can cause severe economic loss in poultry (ducklings, turkeys).
blood apicomplexans2
Blood Apicomplexans
  • Haemoproteus: only have exoerythrocytic schizogony.
  • Occur in birds and reptiles common in the Midwest.
malaria3
Malaria
  • Plasmodium
  • Tropical and sub-tropical regions
  • 40% of the world’s population are at risk
  • 300 million illnesses per year
  • 1.2 million deaths per year
  • 90% deaths in sub-Saharan Africa
period of schizogony
Period of Schizogony
  • Breaking of erythrocytes Paroxysm.
period of schizogony1
Period of Schizogony
  • Breaking of erythrocytes Paroxysm.
  • Tertian – 48 hr erythrocytes break; attacks every other day, P. vivax and P. ovale.
period of schizogony2
Period of Schizogony
  • Breaking of erythrocytes Paroxysm.
  • Tertian – 48 hr erythrocytes break; attacks every other day, P. vivax and P. ovale.
  • Quartan – 72 hr erythrocytes break; attacks three days, P. malariae.
period of schizogony3
Period of Schizogony
  • Breaking of erythrocytes Paroxysm.
  • Tertian – 48 hr erythrocytes break; attacks every other day, P. vivax and P. ovale.
  • Quartan – 72 hr erythrocytes break; attacks three days, P. malariae.
  • P. falciparum- attacks not as predictable 36-48 hr.
malaria4
Malaria
  • We usually think of malaria as a tropical disease, but it can occur in temperate zones.
  • There have been cases of malaria above the arctic circle.
species of plasmodium
Species of Plasmodium
  • Four species that infect humans
species of plasmodium1
Species of Plasmodium
  • Four species that infect humans
    • Plasmodium vivax
      • Widespread, temperate areas, Asia, North Africa
      • 43%
      • Tertian malaria
species of plasmodium2
Species of Plasmodium
  • Four species that infect humans
    • Plasmodium vivax
      • Widespread, temperate areas, Asia, North Africa
      • 43%
      • Tertian malaria
    • Plasmodium falciparum
      • Tropics, 50% of malaria in the world
      • Falciparum malaria, malignant tertian malaria
species of plasmodium3
Species of Plasmodium
  • Four species that infect humans
    • Plasmodium vivax
      • Widespread, temperate areas, Asia, North Africa
      • 43%
      • Tertian malaria
    • Plasmodium falciparum
      • Tropics, 50% of malaria in the world
      • Falciparum malaria, malignant tertian malaria
    • Plasmodium malariae
      • Rare, localized, but widespread
      • Quartan Malaria
species of plasmodium4
Species of Plasmodium
  • Four species that infect humans
    • Plasmodium vivax
      • Widespread, temperate areas, Asia, North Africa
      • 43%
      • Tertian malaria
    • Plasmodium falciparum
      • Tropics, 50% of malaria in the world
      • Falciparum malaria, malignant tertian malaria
    • Plasmodium malariae
      • Rare, localized, but widespread
      • Quartan Malaria
    • Plasmodium ovale
      • Very rare, Africa, Philippines, India, S. America, Vietnam
      • Mild tertian malaria
what is happening in the human
What is Happening in The Human?
  • Parasite in RBC.
  • When RBC erupts
    • Parasite in blood stream
    • Pigment from parasite
    • Hemoglobin from RBC
    • Metabolic byproducts of parasite
what is happening in the human1
What is Happening in The Human?
  • 200 parasites per cc of blood.
  • So how many parasites in a person?
  • Cardinal symptom of malaria Paroxysm!
paraxysm
Paraxysm
  • 1st Chill (violent) even when surrounding temperature is stable.
    • Chill lasts about 1 hr
paraxysm1
Paraxysm
  • 1st Chill (violent) even when surrounding temperature is stable.
    • Chill lasts about 1 hr
  • Then comes the fever.
    • Fever (as high as 106°F) headaches, nausea, vomiting, rapid pulse
    • Lasts several to 10 hr and then breaks.
paraxysm2
Paraxysm
  • 1st Chill (violent) even when surrounding temperature is stable.
    • Chill lasts about 1 hr
  • Then comes the fever.
    • Fever (as high as 106°F) headaches, nausea, vomiting, rapid pulse
    • Lasts several to 10 hr and then breaks.
  • Profuse sweating 2-4 hr.
paraxysm3
Paraxysm
  • 1st Chill (violent) even when surrounding temperature is stable.
    • Chill lasts about 1 hr
  • Then comes the fever.
    • Fever (as high as 106°F) headaches, nausea, vomiting, rapid pulse
    • Lasts several to 10 hr and then breaks.
  • Profuse sweating 2-4 hr.
  • Person is spent but symptoms subside until next cycle.
periodicity

Day

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Temperature

Periodicity
  • Synchrony of the Erythrocytic Cycle
symptoms
Symptoms
  • After three weeks primary attacks stop!
  • Why?
malaria relapse
Malaria Relapse
  • Relapse occurs after primary attack.
malaria relapse1
Malaria Relapse
  • Relapse occurs after primary attack.
  • True relapse persistent exoerythrocytic schizogony produces merozoites that infect RBC’s that then produce more merozoites.
malaria relapse2
Malaria Relapse
  • Relapse occurs after primary attack.
  • True relapse persistent exoerythrocytic schizogony produces merozoites that infect RBC’s that then produce more merozoites.
  • Only occurs in P. vivax and P. ovale. Why is this important?
mechanisms for malaria relapse
Mechanisms for Malaria Relapse
  • When sporozoites are inoculated, not all genetically identical.
mechanisms for malaria relapse1
Mechanisms for Malaria Relapse
  • When sporozoites are inoculated, not all genetically identical.
  • When they infect liver cells some turn into schizonts but others turn into dormant stages known as hypnozoites.
mechanisms for malaria relapse2
Mechanisms for Malaria Relapse
  • When sporozoites are inoculated, not all genetically identical.
  • When they infect liver cells some turn into schizonts but others turn into dormant stages known as hypnozoites.
  • Can be dormant for up to 3 years!
reoccurrence of p malariae
Reoccurrence of P. malariae
  • After primary attack there are a small number of organisms that remain in the blood stream but don’t turn into gametocytes!
  • Reoccurrence (Recrudescence) has been known to happen 50 yrs after the primary attack!
p falciparum
P. falciparum
  • No relapse!
  • Survival of primary attack reconstitutes a cure!
  • There have been a few cases of reoccurrences; same mechanism as P. malariae but will not last for 50 yrs.
pathology1
Pathology
  • Destruction of RBC’s.
pathology2
Pathology
  • Destruction of RBC’s.
    • Loss of Oxygen to tissues and cells
pathology3
Pathology
  • Destruction of RBC’s.
    • Loss of Oxygen to tissues and cells
  • Accumulation of iron pigment in liver, spleen, or brain.
pathology4
Pathology
  • Destruction of RBC’s.
    • Loss of Oxygen to tissues and cells
  • Accumulation of iron pigment in liver, spleen, or brain.
    • When RBC’s burst they release cell debris, hemoglobin and metabolites of parasite
pathology5
Pathology
  • Destruction of RBC’s.
    • Loss of Oxygen to tissues and cells
  • Accumulation of iron pigment in liver, spleen, or brain.
    • When RBC’s burst they release cell debris, hemoglobin and metabolites of parasite
    • Iron pigment can disrupt functions of cells and tissues
pathology6
Pathology
  • Destruction of RBC’s.
    • Loss of Oxygen to tissues and cells
  • Accumulation of iron pigment in liver, spleen, or brain.
    • When RBC’s burst they release cell debris, hemoglobin and metabolites of parasite
    • Iron pigment can disrupt functions of cells and tissues
    • Sometimes iron pigment will collect under skin cause jaundice
pathology7
Pathology
  • Destruction of RBC’s.
    • Loss of Oxygen to tissues and cells
  • Accumulation of iron pigment in liver, spleen, or brain.
    • When RBC’s burst they release cell debris, hemoglobin and metabolites of parasite
    • Iron pigment can disrupt functions of cells and tissues
    • Sometimes iron pigment will collect under skin cause jaundice
    • Pigment can collect in kidneys, causing them to shut down
pathogenesis
Pathogenesis
  • 2 Major aspects during the erythrocytic cycle.
    • Host Inflammatory response
    • Anemia
most severe p falciparum
Most Severe P. falciparum
  • More cells infected (about 60%).
  • Infected cells clump more.
  • Cause clogging of capillaries and hemorrhaging.
clinical conditions associated with plasmodium falciparum
Clinical Conditions associated with Plasmodium falciparum
  • Complications
    • Cerebral Malaria
      • Headache, Coma
      • High temp (>108 F)
      • Psychotic symptoms
      • Hypoxia
clinical conditions associated with plasmodium falciparum1
Clinical Conditions associated with Plasmodium falciparum
  • Complications
    • Pulmonary edema
    • Algid Malaria
        • Shock
        • Circulatory collapse, low blood pressure
    • Blackwater fever
        • Associated with massive RBC lysis
        • Hemozoin in urine
        • Usually occurs in patients that previously had the disease and received inadequate drug treatment
drugs
Drugs
  • Quinine found in a specific tree disrupts erythrocytic schizogony; no effect on sporozoites or exoerythrocytic schizogony.
  • Chloroquine drug of choice against non resistant malaria; no adverse side-effects. Acts on sporozoites and erythrocytic schizogony. Often give with Primaguine.
  • Primaquine acts on exoerythrocytic schizogony, not used to replace others because it is toxic.
drugs1
Drugs
  • Mefloquine (Larium) widely used; used for chloroquine resistant strains of P. falciparum; acts on sporozoites; schizonts; exo-erythrocytic schizonts and gametocytes, but people don’t react to it very well lots of side effects!
immunity to plasmodium
Immunity to Plasmodium
  • If you recover, somewhat protected against reinfections.
  • Subsequent infections won’t produce as many symptoms.
  • Antibodies and their response (acquired immunity).
side effects of malaria
Side Effects of Malaria
  • Malnutrition
  • Shutting down of organs
  • Stunts growth of children
  • Affects growth of children
  • Ancient disease
  • Endemic that can turn to epidemics