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oral approach and situated language learning n.
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Oral Approach and Situated Language Learning

Oral Approach and Situated Language Learning

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Oral Approach and Situated Language Learning

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  1. Oral Approach and Situated Language Learning Prepared by: Doris Shih FJU

  2. Popular language teaching method in 1930 to 1960s in Great Britain

  3. Historical Background

  4. Important figures • German scholar : Wilhelm Victor (1882) • English phonetician: Henry Sweet (1900) • European linguist: Otto Jespersen (1904) • English linguist: Harold Palmer • American linguist: Leonard Bloomfield (1914) • American professor: Charles C. Fries (1945)

  5. German scholar : Wilhelm Victor • 1882 pamphelet *Lanugage Instruction Must Turn Around* • advocated emphasis on “language”rather than writing.

  6. English phonetician:Henry Sweet • 1900 book “The Practical Study of Languages” • “...all study of language, whether theoretical or practical, ought to be based on the spoken language”

  7. European linguist:Otto Jespersen • 1904 book “How to teach a Foreign Language” • called his method of the natural, rational, direct, phonetic, imitative, analytical, concrete, and conversational method.

  8. American linguist: Leonard Bloomfield • 1914 book “Introduction to Linguistic Science” • Language is not the same as writing. language finds its primary expression in speech. • advocated a speaking knowledge as the most desirable goal of language instruction.

  9. American professor:Charles C. Fries • 1945 book Teaching and learning English as a Foreign Language • OA for him is • mastery of basic structures • drills in oral production and reception • building of accurate and fluent linguistic habits

  10. English linguist:Harold Palmer • 1921 book Principles of Language Study • developed a more scientific foundation for oral method than Direct Method. • “..let the example precede or even replace the rule...”

  11. Palmer (cont.) • “..give books, pencils, and pens to the students and make them give them to you... • “..speak about writing words and words being written or about speaking English and English being spoken...”

  12. The view of language runs through these men: Language is a code consisting of a set of habits!!

  13. Approach • Theory of Language • Theory of Learning

  14. Design • Focus on structure • Pronunciation/grammar • No errors • Syllabus • Roles of learner and teacher • Roles of the material

  15. Procedure • Controlled to free • The four Skills • Sample lessons

  16. Keys to the method • Spoken language is primary! • Target language only! • Situational practice • General and useful vocabulary • Closely graded grammar • Reading and writing introduce later

  17. Step by step in the classroom 1. Presentation : Introduce material. 2. Controlled practice: Intensive, teacher-controlled. 3. Free practice: Student practice. 4. Checking: Teacher-elicited usage. 5. Further practice: New situations and combinations.

  18. Get “Situated” • Familiar because of repetition • Comfortable because of form • Useful because of structure

  19. Teacher 6 5 8 7 3 4 1 2 Classroom Management

  20. 5 1 6 2 7 3 8 4

  21. 5 1 2 6 7 3 8 4

  22. Critique

  23. Strengths

  24. Viewed from today...Perspectives • Suitable for introduction to the language. • Oral production without risk. • Values practical grammar and vocabulary. • An accessible method for teachers...if they have good curriculum. • Inexpensive to use.

  25. Weaknesses

  26. Viewed from today...Perspectives • Boring • Inauthentic • Ineffective • Teacher-controlled • Condescending • Conflicts with natural acquisition