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  1. Notes Return to slide J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  2. Quiz time…. • Poll Results J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  3. Quiz time…. • Poll Results • Test-taking to date J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  4. Quiz time…. • Poll Results • Test-taking to date • New test times: Thursday 7 p.m. – Saturday 10 p.m. J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  5. News of the day…. • Journalism is about writing tight. Still, the newspaper critique assignment called for “at least” three or four pages. My apologies. • Syllabus also pointed a site to get info on how to format such papers:http://webster.commnet.edu/mla/index.shtml J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  6. News of the day…. • “Martha Stewart Magazine Cuts Ad Rate Base, as Readers Decline”[NYT 10 Oct. 2003] • “Digital Projection of Films Is Coming. Now, Who Pays?”[12 Oct. 2003] • “New Papers Hope Free and Brief Will Attract Younger Readers” • “Judge Gives Leg Up to Internet Calls” • “Sardonic Jewish Magazine Expands…. J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  7. 18th Century • 1790: In England, the hydraulic press is invented. • 1792: Mechanical semaphore signaler built in France. 1794: Signaling system connects Paris and Lille. J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  8. J200: Journalism and Mass Communications - Week VI The Newspaper Industry J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  9. Newspaper: Industry, Profession, Avocation • Watch for necessary conditions for mass media gestation: • Production technology • Literate audience • Distribution system • Changes in the Infosphere J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  10. U.S. Nwppr Readership J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  11. Newspaper: Industry, Profession, Avocation • Definition:Newspapers are a geographically circumscribed print medium, regularly issued, serving the GENERAL interests of a specific community(usually geographically, but not always, i.e. computer newspapers, horse traders weekly, etc.) J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  12. LondonIntelligencer- 1643 J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  13. TheLondonGazette-FireofLondon - 1666 J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  14. The Ladies Mercury - 1693 J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  15. StamfordMercury -1722 J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  16. The Colored News - 1855 J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  17. Eras of American press • Colonial Press (up through 1776) • Revolutionary Press (1765-1788) • Political Press (1788-1833) • Penny Press (1833-1883) • Personal Editors (1840-1890) • Yellow Journalism (1890-1917) • Jazz Journalism (1914-1933) • Age of Consolidation (1929-today) • Electronic Journalism (1960-today) Source: adapted from Emery and Emery, The Press and America) J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  18. Eras of newspaper development in America: Colonial press • Grew out of the coffeehouses and taverns of the colonies, which were the leading "media" channels. • Mercantile reports of prices, ship sailings and arrivals (impt. information to the seaboard colonies) • The Colonial Press established the newspapers as a gossip machine, a tradition still intact. • Remember, "gossip" doesn't mean the facts are not true. J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  19. Eras of newspaper development in America: Colonial press (1690-1765) • “Publishers" were printers and often undereducated. • Gradually, "editors" evolved out of printers and specialization took effect. By 1746, three decades before the Revolution, a more educated and ideological person was in charge. J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  20. Eras of newspaper development in America: Revolutionary Press (1765-1783) • Established the role of advocacy and reflected political stirrings of a restless country. • Thomas Paine's "Crisis Papers": • Paine was a radical activist in England (twice dismissed from the "excise office" [tax collector] and lead a movement for higher salaries (1772). •    Came to the colonies in 1774, carrying a letter of introduction to Benj. Franklin. J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  21. "These are the times that try men's souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of his country; but he that stands it now deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like Hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph." ---- Thomas Paine, 1776 Revolutionary Press: Thomas Paine J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  22. Revolutionary Press • Alexander Hamilton's "Federalist Papers" • 85 political essays written 1787-88 (mostly by Hamilton, some by James Madison and John Jay); J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  23. MassCentinel04241790. Mass Centinel 24 April 1790 J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  24. GeoWashingtonElec J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  25. Newspaper Eras:“Kept” Press (1783-1833) • $$ support from political parties and factions • Jacksonian period J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  26. Historic Advances in Newspaper Press Technology J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  27. Handpress J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  28. Moveable flatbed press J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  29. Handset type: Composing Room J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  30. Calif. Job Case J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  31. California Job Case J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  32. Handset type Source: http://www.wmwoods.edu/Academics_at_WWU/UndergraduateStudies/Letters_and_Sciences/Clarence_Printing/typesetting.htm J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  33. Handset type J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  34. Horizontal Cylinder Press- 1846 J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  35. Rotary Press J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  36. Newspaper Eras:“Penny” Press (1833-1861) • 1833:Benjamin Day • Low cost, sensational news • Why was the Penny Press possible? • Primarily, literacy. But…. • Improved paper-making and printing technology • New literate class J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  37. Atlanta Constitution J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  38. Newspaper Eras:“Personal Editors” (mid-19th Cent.) • James G. Bennett, New York Herald (1835) • Horace Greeley, New York Tribune (1841) • Henry J. Raymond, The New York Times (1851) • They established: • Crusading as a circulation-building device • Adversary relationship with government • Advertising promotions • Foreign correspondents • Specialized coverage: sports, campaigns, finance J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  39. Newspaper Eras: “Yellow Journalism” (1870-1900) • William Randolph Hearst • Joseph Pulitzer • E. W. Scripps J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  40. NYWorld1884 J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  41. Newspaper Eras: “The Muckrakers” (1890-1910) • Lincoln Steffens (city corruption) • Ida Tarbell (Standard Oil) • Samuel Hopkins (patent-medicine investigations) J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  42. NYPress J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  43. Turn-of-the-century newspapering • Chicago Daily News - http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpcoop/ichihtml/cdnhome.html J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  44. Newspaper Eras: “Jazz Journalism” (1915-1930s) • Tabloid format • Extensive photos • Sensationalism J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  45. “Jazz Journalism” • Leopold and Lobe case "Richard Lobe, a brilliant college student and master of the English language, today ended a sentence with a proposition.“-- Ed LaheyChicago Daily News - 1936 J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  46. “Jazz Journalism” A chilly looking blonde with frosty eyes and one of those marble, you-bet-you-will chins, and an inert, scare-drunk fellow that you couldn't miss among any hundred men as a dead set-up for a blonde, or the shell game, or maybe a gold brick. --Damon RunyonNew York American-1927 J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  47. Jazz Journalism: “Composograph” (1925) J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  48. SundayPictorial J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  49. NYWorld1884 J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

  50. SFChron Phones to SF J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003