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Notes Return to slide Quiz time…. Poll Results Quiz time…. Poll Results Test-taking to date Quiz time…. Poll Results Test-taking to date New test times: Thursday 7 p.m. – Saturday 10 p.m. News of the day….

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notes
Notes

Return to slide

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

quiz time
Quiz time….
  • Poll Results

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

quiz time3
Quiz time….
  • Poll Results
  • Test-taking to date

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

quiz time4
Quiz time….
  • Poll Results
  • Test-taking to date
  • New test times:

Thursday 7 p.m. – Saturday 10 p.m.

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

news of the day
News of the day….
  • Journalism is about writing tight. Still, the newspaper critique assignment called for “at least” three or four pages. My apologies.
  • Syllabus also pointed a site to get info on how to format such papers:http://webster.commnet.edu/mla/index.shtml

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

news of the day6
News of the day….
  • “Martha Stewart Magazine Cuts Ad Rate Base, as Readers Decline”[NYT 10 Oct. 2003]
  • “Digital Projection of Films Is Coming. Now, Who Pays?”[12 Oct. 2003]
  • “New Papers Hope Free and Brief Will Attract Younger Readers”
  • “Judge Gives Leg Up to Internet Calls”
  • “Sardonic Jewish Magazine Expands….

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

18 th century
18th Century
  • 1790: In England, the hydraulic press is invented.
  • 1792: Mechanical semaphore signaler built in France. 1794: Signaling system connects Paris and Lille.

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

j200 journalism and mass communications week vi
J200: Journalism and Mass Communications - Week VI

The Newspaper Industry

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

newspaper industry profession avocation
Newspaper: Industry, Profession, Avocation
  • Watch for necessary conditions for mass media gestation:
    • Production technology
    • Literate audience
    • Distribution system
  • Changes in the Infosphere

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

u s nwppr readership
U.S. Nwppr Readership

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

newspaper industry profession avocation11
Newspaper: Industry, Profession, Avocation
  • Definition:Newspapers are a geographically circumscribed print medium, regularly issued, serving the GENERAL interests of a specific community(usually geographically, but not always, i.e. computer newspapers, horse traders weekly, etc.)

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

londonintelligencer 1643
LondonIntelligencer- 1643

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

thelondongazette fireoflondon 1666
TheLondonGazette-FireofLondon - 1666

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

the ladies mercury 1693
The Ladies Mercury - 1693

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

stamfordmercury 1722
StamfordMercury -1722

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

the colored news 1855
The Colored News - 1855

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

eras of american press
Eras of American press
  • Colonial Press (up through 1776)
  • Revolutionary Press (1765-1788)
  • Political Press (1788-1833)
  • Penny Press (1833-1883)
  • Personal Editors (1840-1890)
  • Yellow Journalism (1890-1917)
  • Jazz Journalism (1914-1933)
  • Age of Consolidation (1929-today)
  • Electronic Journalism (1960-today)

Source: adapted from Emery and Emery, The Press and America)

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

eras of newspaper development in america colonial press
Eras of newspaper development in America: Colonial press
  • Grew out of the coffeehouses and taverns of the colonies, which were the leading "media" channels.
  • Mercantile reports of prices, ship sailings and arrivals (impt. information to the seaboard colonies)
  • The Colonial Press established the newspapers as a gossip machine, a tradition still intact.
    • Remember, "gossip" doesn't mean the facts are not true.

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

eras of newspaper development in america colonial press 1690 1765
Eras of newspaper development in America: Colonial press (1690-1765)
  • “Publishers" were printers and often undereducated.
  • Gradually, "editors" evolved out of printers and specialization took effect. By 1746, three decades before the Revolution, a more educated and ideological person was in charge.

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

eras of newspaper development in america revolutionary press 1765 1783
Eras of newspaper development in America: Revolutionary Press (1765-1783)
  • Established the role of advocacy and reflected political stirrings of a restless country.
  • Thomas Paine's "Crisis Papers":
    • Paine was a radical activist in England (twice dismissed from the "excise office" [tax collector] and lead a movement for higher salaries (1772).
    •    Came to the colonies in 1774, carrying a letter of introduction to Benj. Franklin.

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

revolutionary press thomas paine
"These are the times that try men's souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of his country; but he that stands it now deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like Hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph." ---- Thomas Paine, 1776Revolutionary Press: Thomas Paine

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

revolutionary press
Revolutionary Press
  • Alexander Hamilton's "Federalist Papers"
  • 85 political essays written 1787-88 (mostly by Hamilton, some by James Madison and John Jay);

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

masscentinel04241790
MassCentinel04241790.

Mass Centinel 24 April 1790

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

geowashingtonelec
GeoWashingtonElec

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

newspaper eras kept press 1783 1833
Newspaper Eras:“Kept” Press (1783-1833)
  • $$ support from political parties and factions
  • Jacksonian period

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

historic advances in newspaper press technology
Historic Advances in Newspaper Press Technology

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

handpress
Handpress

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

moveable flatbed press
Moveable flatbed press

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

handset type composing room
Handset type: Composing Room

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

calif job case
Calif. Job Case

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

california job case
California Job Case

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

handset type
Handset type

Source: http://www.wmwoods.edu/Academics_at_WWU/UndergraduateStudies/Letters_and_Sciences/Clarence_Printing/typesetting.htm

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

handset type33
Handset type

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

horizontal cylinder press 1846
Horizontal Cylinder Press- 1846

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

rotary press
Rotary Press

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

newspaper eras penny press 1833 1861
Newspaper Eras:“Penny” Press (1833-1861)
  • 1833:Benjamin Day
  • Low cost, sensational news
  • Why was the Penny Press possible?
    • Primarily, literacy. But….
    • Improved paper-making and printing technology
    • New literate class

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

atlanta constitution
Atlanta Constitution

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

newspaper eras personal editors mid 19 th cent
Newspaper Eras:“Personal Editors” (mid-19th Cent.)
  • James G. Bennett, New York Herald (1835)
  • Horace Greeley, New York Tribune (1841)
  • Henry J. Raymond, The New York Times (1851)
  • They established:
    • Crusading as a circulation-building device
    • Adversary relationship with government
    • Advertising promotions
    • Foreign correspondents
    • Specialized coverage: sports, campaigns, finance

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

newspaper eras yellow journalism 1870 1900
Newspaper Eras: “Yellow Journalism” (1870-1900)
  • William Randolph Hearst
  • Joseph Pulitzer
  • E. W. Scripps

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

nyworld1884
NYWorld1884

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

newspaper eras the muckrakers 1890 1910
Newspaper Eras: “The Muckrakers” (1890-1910)
  • Lincoln Steffens (city corruption)
  • Ida Tarbell (Standard Oil)
  • Samuel Hopkins (patent-medicine investigations)

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

nypress
NYPress

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

turn of the century newspapering
Turn-of-the-century newspapering
  • Chicago Daily News - http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpcoop/ichihtml/cdnhome.html

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

newspaper eras jazz journalism 1915 1930s
Newspaper Eras: “Jazz Journalism” (1915-1930s)
  • Tabloid format
  • Extensive photos
  • Sensationalism

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

jazz journalism
“Jazz Journalism”
  • Leopold and Lobe case

"Richard Lobe, a brilliant college student and master of the English language, today ended a sentence with a proposition.“-- Ed LaheyChicago Daily News - 1936

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

jazz journalism46
“Jazz Journalism”

A chilly looking blonde with frosty eyes and one of those marble, you-bet-you-will chins, and an inert, scare-drunk fellow that you couldn't miss among any hundred men as a dead set-up for a blonde, or the shell game, or maybe a gold brick.

--Damon RunyonNew York American-1927

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

jazz journalism composograph 1925
Jazz Journalism: “Composograph” (1925)

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

sundaypictorial
SundayPictorial

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

nyworld188449
NYWorld1884

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

sfchron phones to sf
SFChron Phones to SF

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

jfkelection
JFKElection

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

lbjelection
LBJElection

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

nixonelection
NixonElection

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

sfchronearthquake
SFChronEarthquake

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

newspaper eras age of maturity post war to mid 90s
Newspaper Eras: “Age of Maturity” (post-war to mid-’90s)
  • “Balanced” coverage
  • Photojournalism
  • Precision journalism
  • Graphic design
    • Four-colors
    • Informational graphics
    • Re-packaging the news (books, electronic databases)

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

newspaper technonogies
Newspaper Technonogies

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

newspaper eras digital news 1995 present
Newspaper Eras: Digital News (1995-present)
  • Originally, BBS systems
  • “Shovelware”
  • Customization
  • Changing relationships between readers, media, advertisers
  • Threats to ad revenues, esp. classified
  • Changing definitions and role of “community”

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

thetimesoflondonweb101299
TheTimesofLondonWeb101299

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

financial times101299
Financial Times101299

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

of daily newspaper advertising revenue by category
% of Daily Newspaper Advertising Revenue by Category

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

expenses as of newspaper operating budgets
Expenses as % of Newspaper Operating Budgets

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

newspaper revenue sources
Newspaper Revenue Sources

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

avg churn rates by circulation
Avg. Churn Rates by Circulation

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

no of u s morning evening dailies
No. of U.S. Morning & Evening Dailies

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

daily newspaper circulation
Daily Newspaper Circulation

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

current newspaper circulation data
Current Newspaper Circulation & Data
  • www.adage.com Data Centerhttp://www.adage.com/page.cms?pageId=954
  • NAA data http://www.naa.org/artpage.cfm?AID=1613&SID=154
  • NAA 2002 Facts about newspapershttp://www.naa.org/info/facts02/index.html
  • Daily newspaper circulation 1950-2001http://www.naa.org/info/facts02/15_facts2002.html
  • US Newspaper employmenthttp://www.naa.org/info/facts02/31_facts2002.html

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

newspaper circ chart
Newspaper Circ. Chart

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

newspaper readership
Newspaper Readership

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003

making money with font change
Making money with font change

J200 - Week VI © J.T.Johnson 1999_____________________________Fall 2003