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CSCE 590E Spring 2007

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  1. CSCE 590E Spring 2007 Graphics I By Jijun Tang

  2. Announcements • Second presentation will be held on April 16th and 18th • April 16th: Space Banditos, Slackers, Psychosoft • April 18th: Project Gnosis, Cheeze Puffs!, Team Swampus • Final demo will be open to public, including people from media arts

  3. What is Collision Detection • A fundamental problem in computer games, computer animation, physically-based modeling, geometric modeling, and robotics. • Including algorithms: • To check for collision, i.e. intersection, of two given objects • To calculate trajectories, impact times and impact points in a physical simulation.

  4. Overlap Testing (a posteriori) • Overlap testing: Detects whether a collision has already occurred, sometime is referred as a posteriori • Facts • Most common technique used in games • Exhibits more error than intersection testing • Concept • For every (small) simulation step, test every pair of objects to see if they overlap • Easy for simple volumes like spheres, harder for polygonal models

  5. Overlap Testing: Limitations • Fails with objects that move too fast (compared to the object) • Thin glass vs. bulltes • Unlikely to catch time slice during overlap

  6. Intersection Testing (a priori) • Predict future collisions • When predicted: • Move simulation to time of collision • Resolve collision • Simulate remaining time step

  7. Intersection Testing:Swept Geometry • Extrude geometry in direction of movement • Swept sphere turns into a “capsule” shape

  8. Simplified Geometry • Approximate complex objects with simpler geometry, like this ellipsoid or bounding boxes

  9. Minkowski Sum

  10. Bounding Volumes • Bounding volume is a simple geometric shape • Completely encapsulates object • If no collision with bounding volume, no more testing is required • Common bounding volumes • Sphere • Box

  11. Box Bounding Volumes

  12. Terrain Collision Detection:Height Field Landscape

  13. Collision Resolution:Examples • Two billiard balls strike • Calculate ball positions at time of impact • Impart new velocities on balls • Play “clinking” sound effect • Rocket slams into wall • Rocket disappears • Explosion spawned and explosion sound effect • Wall charred and area damage inflicted on nearby characters • Character walks through wall • Magical sound effect triggered • No trajectories or velocities affected

  14. Collision Resolution:Parts • Resolution has three parts 1. Prologue 2. Collision 3. Epilogue

  15. Graphics

  16. Fundamentals • Frame and Back Buffer • Visibility and Depth Buffer • Stencil Buffer • Triangles • Vertices • Coordinate Spaces • Textures • Shaders • Materials

  17. Frame and Back Buffer • Both hold pixel colors • Frame buffer is displayed on screen • Back buffer is just a region of memory • Image is rendered to the back buffer • Half-drawn images are very distracting • You do not want to see the screen is drawn pixel by pixel

  18. Two Buffers

  19. Switching • Back buffer can be standard, frame buffer should aim at each hardware • Swapped to the frame buffer • May be a swap, or may be a copy • Copy is actually preferred, because you can still modify the format • Back buffer is larger if anti-aliasing • Some hardware may not support anti-aliasing • Shrink and filter to frame buffer

  20. Anti-aliasing

  21. Visibility and Depth Buffer • Depth buffer is a buffer that holds the depth of each pixel in the scene, and is the same size as back buffer • Holds a depth or “Z” value (often called the “Z buffer”) • Pixels test their depth against existing value • If greater, new pixel is further than existing pixel • Therefore hidden by existing pixel – rejected • Otherwise, is in front, and therefore visible • Overwrites value in depth buffer and color in back buffer • No useful units for the depth value • By convention, nearer means lower value • Non-linear mapping from world space

  22. Object Depth Is Difficult

  23. Basic Depth Buffer Algorithm for each object in scene in any order for each pixel in the object being rendered if the pixel has already been rendered, then if the new object pixel is closer than the old one, then Replace the displayed pixel with the new one

  24. Stencil Buffer • The stencil buffer is buffer that guides the translation between the back buffer and the front buffer • Usually eight bits in size and usually interleaved with 24-bit depth buffer • Can write to stencil buffer • Can reject pixels based on comparison between existing value and reference • Many uses for masking and culling

  25. Triangles • Fundamental primitive of pipelines • Everything else constructed from them • (except lines and point sprites) • Three points define a plane • Triangle plane is mapped with data • Textures • Colors • “Rasterized” to find pixels to draw

  26. Mesh

  27. Vertices • A vertex is a point in space • Plus other attribute data • Colors • Surface normal • Texture coordinates • Whatever data shader programs need • Triangles use three vertices • Vertices shared between adjacent triangles

  28. Frustum • The viewing frustum is the region of space in the modeled world that may appear on the screen • Frustum culling is the process of removing objects that lie completely outside the viewing frustum from the rendering process

  29. Frustum and Frustum Culling

  30. Coordinate Spaces • World space • Arbitrary global game space • Object space • Child of world space • Origin at entity’s position and orientation • Vertex positions and normals stored in this • Camera space • Camera’s version of “object” space • Screen space • Clip space vertices projected to screen space • Actual pixels, ready for rendering

  31. Coordinate Spaces (2) • Clip space • Distorted version of camera space • Edges of screen make four side planes • Near and far planes • Needed to control precision of depth buffer • Total of six clipping planes • Distorted to make a cube in 4D clip space • Makes clipping hardware simpler

  32. Clip Space Triangles will be clipped Clip space frustum Camera space visible frustum Eye

  33. Coordinate Spaces (3) • Tangent space • Defined at each point on surface of mesh • Usually smoothly interpolated over surface • Normal of surface is one axis • “tangent” and “binormal” axes lie along surface • Tangent direction is controlled by artist • Useful for lighting calculations

  34. Tangent Space

  35. Textures • Array of texels • Same as pixel, but for a texture • Nominally R,G,B,A but can mean anything • 1D, 2D, 3D and “cube map” arrays • 2D is by far the most common • Basically just a 2D image bitmap • Often square and power-of-2 in size • Cube map - six 2D arrays makes hollow cube • Approximates a hollow sphere of texels

  36. Texture Example

  37. Shaders • A program run at each vertex or pixel • Generates pixel colors or vertex positions • Relatively small programs • Usually tens or hundreds of instructions • Explicit parallelism • No direct communication between shaders • “Extreme SIMD” programming model • Hardware capabilities evolving rapidly

  38. Example

  39. Materials • Description of how to render a triangle • Big blob of data and state • Vertex and pixel shaders • Textures • Global variables • Description of data held in vertices • Other pipeline state • Does not include actual vertex data

  40. High-Level Organization • Gameplay and Rendering • Render Objects • Render Instances • Meshes • Skeletons • Volume Partitioning

  41. Gameplay and Rendering • Rendering speed varies according to scene • Some scenes more complex than others • Typically 15-60 frames per second • Gameplay is constant speed • Camera view should not change game • In multiplayer, each person has a different view, but there is only one shared game • 1 update per second (RTS) to thousands (FPS) • Keep the two as separate as possible!

  42. Render Objects • Description of renderable object type • Mesh data (triangles, vertices) • Material data (shaders, textures, etc) • Skeleton (+rig) for animation • Shared by multiple instances

  43. Render Instances • A single entity in a world • References a render object • Decides what the object looks like • Position and orientation • Lighting state • Animation state

  44. Meshes • Triangles • Vertices • Single material • “Atomic unit of rendering” • Not quite atomic, depending on hardware • Single object may have multiple meshes • Each with different shaders, textures, etc • Level-Of-Distance (LOD)

  45. LOD • Objects have different mesh for different distance from the player • The mesh should be simpler if object is faraway • Many games have LOD, for example, Microsoft Train Simulator

  46. LOD Example in MSTS

  47. Skeletons • Skeleton is a hierarchy of bones • Deforms meshes for animation • Typically one skeleton per object • Used to deform multiple meshes • We have done a demo about skeleton animation • See “Character Animation” chapter • (although deformation is part of rendering)

  48. Volume Partitioning • Cannot draw entire world every frame • Lots of objects – far too slow • Need to decide quickly what is visible • Partition world into areas • Decide which areas are visible • Draw things in each visible area • Many ways of partitioning the world

  49. Volume Partitioning - Portals • Nodes joined by portals • Usually a polygon, but can be any shape • See if any portal of node is visible • If so, draw geometry in node • See if portals to other nodes are visible • Check only against visible portal shape • Common to use screen bounding boxes • Recurse to other nodes

  50. Volume Partitioning – Portals Node View frustum Portal Visible Test first two portals Invisible Not tested ? ? Eye