I d mrc social research methods autumn lecture workshop series
Download
1 / 62

- PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 255 Views
  • Uploaded on

I d MRC Social Research Methods Autumn Lecture-Workshop Series. Science. Aim? When is knowledge scientific knowledge? Criteria? Knowledge sources? When is research scientific research?. Henri Christiaans. Science. Realism What we observe is real Instrumentalism

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about '' - Leo


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
I d mrc social research methods autumn lecture workshop series l.jpg

IdMRC Social Research MethodsAutumn Lecture-Workshop Series


Science l.jpg
Science

  • Aim?

  • When is knowledge scientific knowledge?

    • Criteria?

  • Knowledge sources?

  • When is research scientific research?

Henri Christiaans


Science3 l.jpg
Science

  • Realism

    What we observe is real

  • Instrumentalism

    What we observe doesn’t need to be real

  • Social constructivism

    Theories only get meaning through social and political context


What is knowledge l.jpg
What is Knowledge?

  • Justified true belief (Plato’s Theaetetus)

  • The Greeks classify knowledge into 2 types:

    • Doxa (believed to be true)

    • Episteme (known to be true)

  • Doxa  Epistime

    • Through Scientific process of inquiry

  • How do we know what we know?

    • Define knowledge alternatively

      • Supported by evidence (usually empirical)

      • Conceive knowledge claims in a probabilistic sense

    • Knowledge is a matter of societal acceptance


How is knowledge acquired l.jpg
How is Knowledge Acquired?

  • Role of science, where science is a convention, related to societal norms, expectations, values, etc.

  • Thus, is science equals any scholarly attempt at acquiring knowledge

  • Science requires conventions to be followed


How is knowledge acquired6 l.jpg
How is Knowledge Acquired?

  • Role of science, where science is a convention, related to societal norms, expectations, values, etc.

  • Thus, is science equals any scholarly attempt at acquiring knowledge

  • Science requires conventions to be followed


Knowledge in design l.jpg
Knowledge in design

  • Implicit prioritisation of the (language-based mode of) propositional knowledge (justified true beliefs) seems to exclude certain kinds or formats of knowledge associated with practice, which are often called practical, experiential, personal, or tacit knowledge and which evade verbal articulation.


Knowledge sources l.jpg
Knowledge sources

  • Observation

    • Experiments/measurements

  • The Reason

    • Mathematics/logical reasoning

  • Intuition

  • Authority

  • (Divine) Revelation


Science based on empirism l.jpg
Science based on empirism

Empirism:

Knowledge derived from how the world is experienced. Scientific statements are controlled by and derived from our experiences and observations. en

Scientific theoriesdeveloped and tested by experiments and observations through empirical methods


Questions to be asked l.jpg
Questions to be asked

  • Which methods do we plan to use?

  • Which methodology defines the use of methods?

  • Which theoretical perspective do we start from in order to apply the right methodology?

  • Which epistemology feeds this theoretical perspective?


Ontology l.jpg
Ontology

1. A systematic account of Existence. Nature of the world around us.

2. (From philosophy) An explicit formal specification of how to represent the objects, concepts and other entities that are assumed to exist in some area of interest and the relationships that hold among them.

3. The hierarchical structuring of knowledge about things by subcategorising them according to their essential (or at least relevant and/or cognitive) qualities.


Epistemology and ontology l.jpg
Epistemology and ontology

The way of understanding and interpreting how we know what we know.

Particular methodologies tend to entail (subscribe to) particular epistemologies and, in their turn, particular forms of ontology


Ontology in computing terms l.jpg
Ontology in Computing Terms

  • For AI systems, what "exists" is that which can be represented.

  • We can describe the ontology of a program by defining a set of representational terms. Definitions associate the names of entities in the universe of discourse (e.g. classes, relations, functions or other objects) with human-readable text describing what the names mean, and formal axioms that constrain the interpretation and well-formed use of these terms. Formally, an ontology is the statement of a logical theory.

  • A set of agents that share the same ontology will be able to communicate about a domain of discourse without necessarily operating on a globally shared theory. The idea of ontological commitment is based on the Knowledge-Level perspective.


Epistemology l.jpg
Epistemology

  • From the Greek words episteme (knowledge) and logos (word/speech) is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature, origin and scope of knowledge.

  • Refers to our theory of knowledge, in particular, how we acquire knowledge (Hirschheim, 1992).


Research background l.jpg
Research background

Crotty, 1998



Theoretical perspective l.jpg
Theoretical perspective

Philosophical point of view which feeds the methodology and offers a context for the process and the logics, and gives our criteria a basis.

Cultural differences play a role


Research background18 l.jpg
Research background

Crotty, 1998


Three main epistemologies l.jpg
Three Main Epistemologies

Positivist

Interpretivist

Critical


Interpretivism l.jpg
Interpretivism

  • Interpretivism rests upon idealism:

  • the world is interpreted through the mind; e.g., classificatory schemes of species;

  • the social world cannot be described without investigating how people use language and symbols to construct what social practices; i.e., understand their experience;

  • the social world becomes the creation of the purposeful actions of conscious agents; and

  • no social explanation was complete unless it could adequately describe the role of meanings in human actions

  • Actions are not governed by discrete patterns of cause and effect (as in positivism), but by rules that social actors use to interpret the world


Positivist science l.jpg
Positivist Science

  • 5 Pillars

    • Unity of scientific method

    • Causal Relationships

    • Empiricism

    • Science and its process is Value-Free

    • Foundation of science is based on logic and maths


Ontology of positivism l.jpg
Ontology of Positivism

  • Realism

  • Universe comprised of objectively given, immutable objects and structures, existing as empirical entities, on their own, independent of the observer’s appreciation of them.

  • Contrasts with relativism or instrumentalism, where reality is a subjective construction of the mind, thus varying with different languages and cultures.

  • While hugely successful in physical sciences, it is not as successful for social science.


Anti positivism l.jpg
Anti-Positivism

  • Latter part of 19th century

  • Man as an actor could not be studied through the methods of natural sciences that focus on establishing general laws. In the cultural sphere man is free (Burrell and Morgan, 1979)


Post positivism l.jpg
Post-Positivism

  • Based on the concept of critical realism, that there is a real world out there independent of our perception of it and that the objective of science is to try and understand it,

  • combined with triangulation, i.e., the recognition that observations and measurements are inherently imperfect and hence the need to measure phenomena in many ways.

  • The post-positivist epistemology regards the acquisition of knowledge as a process that is more than mere deduction. Knowledge is acquired through both deduction and induction.


Slide25 l.jpg

Simon versus Schon

Designer

Designer

subjective Interpretation

objective Analysis

Objective Analysis

design Problem

design Solution

Design Task

(= problem + situation+ teime)

design Solution

Rational Solving Problem Paradigm

Reflection in Action Paradigm

Rationalist Root

Constructivist Root

POSITIVISM

PHENOMENOLOGY


Methodology l.jpg
Methodology

Our strategy and action plans, the design process which defines what specific methods we will choose


Research background27 l.jpg
Research background

Crotty, 1998


Types of research l.jpg
Types of Research

Analytical Historical Philosophical

Literature study Meta-analysis

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Descriptive Survey(questionnaire, interview)

Case study Task analysis

Document analysis Correlation anal.

Observation Etnographics

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Explorative Survey Correlational

Case study Experimental

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Experimental Pre-experimental

True-experimental

Quasi-experimental

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



Types of research methods l.jpg
Types of research methods

empirical

participatory

quantitative

prescriptive

inductive

idiographic

nomothetic

descriptive

deductive

unbiased

qualitative

rational


Slide31 l.jpg

induction

hypotheses

describing/

interpreting

generalising

modelling

Explaining/

interpreting

theory

modelling

specifying

evaluation

deduction

prediction

evaluating

testing

testing

Fundamental Research: the Empirical cycle

knowledge problem

‘t Hart c.s.


Slide32 l.jpg

diagnosis

describing/

interpreting

generalising

modelling

designing

problem from practice

plan

(problem solving)

deciding

evaluating

intervention

evaluation

action-process supporting

observing

process evaluation

Practice oriented Research: The regulative cycle

‘t Hart c.s.


Method l.jpg
Method

The technique to gather data, related to the research question.


Research background34 l.jpg
Research background

Crotty, 1998



Slide36 l.jpg

Type of Research, General Research Approaches, Positivist Research

Data Collection Techniques, & Data Analysis Techniques


Design led l.jpg

Design-Led Positivist Research

Design-Led

Critical

Design

generativetools

Probes

Design and Emotion

User-centered

Design

Participatory

Design

Participatory mindset

Expert mindset

contextual enquiry

Lead-user inovation

Dutch/Scandinavian design

Usability testing

applied

ethnography

Human factors and ergonomics

Sanders, 2002

Research-Led

Research-Led


Design led38 l.jpg

Design-Led Positivist Research

Design-Led

Critical

Design

generativetools

Probes

Design and Emotion

User-centered

Design

Participatory

Design

Participatory mindset

Expert mindset

contextual enquiry

Lead-user inovation

Dutch/Scandinavian design

Usability testing

applied

ethnography

Human factors and ergonomics

Sanders, 2002

Research-Led

Research-Led


Research background39 l.jpg
Research background Positivist Research

Crotty, 1998


Definitions l.jpg
Definitions Positivist Research

  • ‘Research’ = the systematic inquiry to the end of gaining new knowledge

  • a ‘researcher’ = a person who pursues research (e.g., in design).

  • Practice’ = professional practice (e.g., in design) or to processes usually used in professional practice to produce professional work for any purpose other than the (deliberate) acquisition of knowledge.

  • ‘Practitioner’ = anyone who works in professional practice.


Design knowledge l.jpg
Design Knowledge Positivist Research

Process (design methodology)

product

people

designers


Design knowledge42 l.jpg
Design knowledge Positivist Research

  • Design knowledge resides firstly in people: in designers especially. Therefore, we study human ability - of how people design. This suggests, for example, empirical studies of design behaviour, but it also includes theoretical deliberation and reflection on the nature of design ability. It also relates strongly to considerations of how people learn to design


Design knowledge43 l.jpg
Design knowledge Positivist Research

  • Design knowledge resides firstly in people: in designers especially. Therefore, we study of human ability - of how people design. This suggests, for example, empirical studies of design behaviour, but it also includes theoretical deliberation and reflection on the nature of design ability. It also relates strongly to considerations of how people learn to design.

  • Design knowledge resides secondly in processes: in the tactics and strategies of designing. A major area of design research is methodology: the study of the processes of design, and the development and application of techniques which aid the designer.


Design knowledge44 l.jpg
Design knowledge Positivist Research

  • Design knowledge resides firstly in people: in designers especially. Therefore, we study of human ability - of how people design. This suggests, for example, empirical studies of design behaviour, but it also includes theoretical deliberation and reflection on the nature of design ability. It also relates strongly to considerations of how people learn to design

  • Design knowledge resides secondly in processes: in the tactics and strategies of designing. A major area of design research is methodology: the study of the processes of design, and the development and application of techniques which aid the designer.

  • The product dimension asks for forms and materials, and finishes with the embodiment of design attributes: both the intentional world (teleological and functional –wishes and needs–) in relation with the principal, partial and elementary function and the man’s connection with the systemic formal and material part (structure, organization, parts and connections).


Slide45 l.jpg

Design Research Positivist Research


Slide46 l.jpg

Design Research Positivist Research


Slide47 l.jpg

Design Research Positivist Research


Design research l.jpg
Design Research Positivist Research

Love’s proposal:

a unified basis for design theory bridging these two incompatible approaches.

Advantages

  • It provides a coherent epistemological basis for new theories

  • It recasts prior research and theory within a justified integrated framework with a clear epistemology and ontology.

  • This in turn provides the basis for developing a design field.


Slide52 l.jpg

Foundations for a unified basis Positivist Research

  • Designs (i.e. the specification for creating or doing something)

  • Designed outcomes (after they are manufactured/actualised)

  • Design activity

  • Design processes

  • The skills of designers

  • The role of design activity

  • Cognitive design processes

  • Behaviour of designers as individuals and in social groups

  • Combinations of the above



Slide54 l.jpg

Deductive logic of quantitative research Research

Researcher tests or verifies a theory

Researcher tests hypotheses

or research questions

Researcher defines and operationalizes

variables derived from the theory

Researcher measures or observes

variables using an instrument

to obtain scores

Creswell, 2003


Slide55 l.jpg

Inductive logic of qualitative research Research

Generalizations or theories

to past experiences and literature

Researcher looks for broad patterns.

Generalizations or Theories from

Themes or Categories

Researcher analyze data to

form themes or categories

Researcher asks open-ended questions

of participants or records field-notes

Researcher gathers information

e.g. interviews, observations

Creswell, 2003


Slide56 l.jpg

Qualitative vs Quantitative Research

Quantitative

General Laws

Test Hypotheses

Predict behavior

Outsider-Objective

Structured

formal measures

probability samples

statistical analysis

Qualitative

Unique/Individual case

Understanding

Meanings/Intentions

Insider-Subjective

Unstructured

open ended measures

judgement samples

interpretation of data

Purpose

Perspective

Procedures


Qualitative research l.jpg
Qualitative Research Research

Triangulation

By using several data collecting methods – field notes, interviews, narratives – a complete picture of the phenomenon can be provided


Interpretation observation of species l.jpg

- Research

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Interpretation:observation of species

  • -

a

-


Interpretation l.jpg

- Research

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Interpretation

a

b

  • -

-

c

d


Interpretation observation of discourse l.jpg
Interpretation: Researchobservation of discourse

J (reading) pack is firmly attached to the bike positioning of the backpack was alright fact that the centre of gravity of the backpack is placed rather far to the back of the bike (inaudible)

I do we have any … em...

J there's a problem with potholes .. the backpack tends to slide up and down which adversely influences stability I guess when you hit bumps

I isn't that in the negative?

J mm yeah well the product was considered ugly well that's solvable (laughter) we can fix that one if nothing else ... it takes a while to get used to cycling with this weight; mistakes are made attaching the fastening device to the bike so it has to be easy to attach

K with only one yeah gotta be fool proof so that's part of our

J yeah that should be in our spec

K functional spec


The role of interpretation l.jpg
The role of interpretation Research

Gap between objects and our representations, in 3 forms ('methodological horrors', Woolgar '88):

1. Indexicality

2. Inconcludability

3. Reflexivity


Slide62 l.jpg

THANK YOU! Research


ad